Archivos de diario de junio 2018

12 de junio de 2018

Extinct and Threatened in Cape Town.

The following list is just for the City of Cape Town.
This explains why Cape Town is the world's biggest environmental disaster!

General:

It is a sad reality that Cape Town leads the world in terms of species that are threatened with extinction or extinct. Some 13 plant species that used to occur in Cape Town are now globally extinct in the wild. A further 306 of Cape Town’s plant species, and 27 of its animal species, are in immediate danger of extinction. Contrary to what most people think, it is not in the tropics that the greatest concentration of threatened species occurs, but in Cape Town.

What are they?

Most threatened species in Cape Town are plants:
almost 320 species are threatened with extinction, of which 13 are already extinct.
A quarter of the city’s frogs and toads (amphibians) are threatened with extinction.
Unfortunately, we know very little about the ‘creepy crawlies’, and Cape Town probably has many
threatened invertebrates as well.

Note for ‘Extinct’. This refers to species that are globally extinct. All mammals over 50 kg were hunted out in Cape Town by the year 1700, but most still survive in southern Africa. Large mammals currently present (such as at Cape Point) have been reintroduced from elsewhere.

What are the Extinct species?

The following species that used to occur in Cape Town are now listed in the IUCN Red List as “Globally Extinct”. Below, the date and cause of extinction are given for each:

Buchu family: Hairy Buchu Macrostylis villosa subsp. minor (1960s; vineyards in the Bottelary Hills)
Daisy family: Hairy Boneseed Osteospermum hirsutum (1800s; urbanisation)
Heath family – six species:
Kraaifontein Heath Erica bolusiae var. cyathiformis (1970s; urbanisation of northern suburbs; in cultivation at Kirstenbosch);
Showy Heath Erica turgida (1970s; housing at Kenilworth; in cultivation at Kirstenbosch and reintroduced to Kenilworth, Rondevlei and Tokai);
Whorl Heath Erica verticillata (1950s; flower picking and wetland destruction; in cultivation and reintroduced to Rondevlei, Kenilworth and Tokai);
Alexander’s Heath Erica alexandri subsp. acockii (1940s; urbanisation of Kraaifontein);
Steenbras Heath Erica foliacea subsp. fulgens (1890s; pine plantations); and
Pyramid Heath Erica pyramidalis (1950s; urbanisation of southern suburbs).
Pea family – two species: Cape Flats Gorse Aspalathus variegata (1890s; urbanisation of southern suburbs); and
Grass Mountain Pea Liparia graminifolia (1820s; urbanisation of Mowbray).
Protea family: Wynberg Conebush Leucadendron grandiflorum (1800s; vineyards at Wynberg)
Reed family: Table Mountain Window Reed Willdenowia affinis (1910s; pine plantations at Kloof Corner)
Sedge family: Green-and-red Isolepis Isolepis bulbifera (1950s; urbanisation of southern suburbs)
Snapdragon family: Peninsula Snapdragon Nemesia micrantha (date and cause of extinction unknown)

Velvetworm: Lion Velvetworm Peripatopsis leonina (1950s; Signal Hill; cause of extinction unknown)

Other threatened taxa:

Apart from plants which have a whopping 85 species in immediate danger of extinction, other groups with Critically Endangered species include amphibians (Table Mountain Ghost Frog and Micro Frog), reptiles (Geometric Tortoise) and butterflies (Dicksons Monkey Blue Lepidochrysops methymna dicksoni; these have not been seen for 40 years in Tygerberg).
Some species are precariously close to extinction: the Kraaifontein Spiderhead Serruria furcellata exists as only a single plant on the commonage. Such ‘living dead’ species are as good as extinct, unless rescued by conservation authorities.

Threats:

Urbanization is the largest threat to the plants and animals in Cape Town. Historically, cultivation was the main cause of species loss (mainly wheat in the Renosterveld, and pines and vines in Granite Fynbos). Currently, the second-greatest threat is invasive alien plants (such as wattles, pines, hakeas and gums). There are many other threats, such as fire, grazing, picking, climate change and dumping. However, these threats are minor compared to the big three, which result in habitat transformation. Through this transformation, natural ecosystem processes become compromised, with fire ecology changing, water tables being abstracted, wetlands destroyed, and water, soils and air polluted.

Is there any hope?

Of course there is, but not if we continue in the same old way. We have to deal with disasters happening in our own backyards (tropical forests and coral reefs, notwithstanding), and take responsibility for the amazing plants and animals that live in Cape Town. Urban sprawl must be converted to densification. We need nature reserves that are big enough and properly managed.
Natural fire regimes must be maintained in nature reserves.
Threatened species must be rescued from extinction. This rescue must be done locally in nature reserves – species cannot just be moved somewhere else, as many occur in specialised niches, which do not occur elsewhere, and must be conserved for the species to survive. There is still time to prevent the situation from getting much worse, but we have to act now. It is estimated that we have ten years before the situation becomes hopeless. We need to do something immediately, and you can help.

As can be seen the most Extinct, Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable species within the city occur in the southern and northern suburbs in what used to be Cape Flats Sand Fynbos, followed by Renosterveld (which was converted to wheatlands and vineyards). Note that the Sandstone Fynbos of the Cape Peninsula also has lots of species, and most of these are threatened by invasive alien plants and inappropriate fire management. The
ecosystems most affected by extinction are the Renosterveld types, as their large herds of game (hartebeest, zebra, eland, ostrich and rhinos) were shot out by the 18th century, resulting in a change from a grassland to a shrubland, followed by a large-scale conversion to wheatland in the 20th century. Although the large mammals are local extinctions, their loss has contributed to the threats affecting local Renosterveld species, which are now globally threatened with extinction.

Benefits:

An extinct species is lost forever. Many species have cultural, medicinal and aesthetic value, and many support many other species, such as parasites, predators and symbionts. Some species are keystone species, and maintain entire food webs. Lastly, species have a right to exist, just as much as we have a right to exist – this is called ‘intrinsic value’. Species that occur nowhere else on earth have a right to exist in their habitat in Cape Town! Capetonians have a responsibility to conserve their unique natural heritage.

What you can do:

Kirstenbosch National Botanical Garden and the Millennium Seed Bank have a plant rescue programme which saves plants, bulks them up, and reintroduces them into the wild. The Custodians of Rare and Endangered Wildflowers (CREW) monitors rare species, so that we know when we need to act. Many nature reserves have Friends groups, who help with reserve management and maintenance. Some groups focus on certain species, such as
those that prevent road deaths of the Western Leopard Toad during its spring breeding season, when thousands of toads migrate to and from their mating pools. Join these groups, and help to conserve our wild life.

Extracted from
CAPE TOWN’S UNIQUE BIODIVERSITY PLANTS AND ANIMALS 8. Threatened species
Get your poster here: http://resource.capetown.gov.za/documentcentre/Documents/Graphics%20and%20educational%20material/Biodiv_fact_sheet_08_ThreatenedSpecies_2011-03.pdf

Threatened Species

RED LIST PLANTS

Critically Endangered (CR)

Afrolimon purpuratum CR
Aristea ericifolia erecta CR
Arctotheca forbesiana CR
Aspalathus aculeata CR
Aspalathus horizontalis CR
Aspalathus rycroftii CR
Babiana leipoldtii CR
Babiana regia CR
Babiana secunda CR
Cadiscus aquaticus CR
Cephalophyllum parviflorum CR
Chrysocoma esterhuyseniae CR
Cliffortia acockii CR
Cotula myriophylloides CR
Cyclopia latifolia CR
Diastella proteoides CR
Disa barbata CR
Disa nubigena CR
Disa physodes CR
Disa sabulosa CR
Erica abietina diabolis CR
Erica bolusiae bolusiae CR
Erica heleogena CR
Erica malmesburiensis CR
Erica margaritacea CR
Erica ribisaria CR
Erica sociorum CR
Erica ustulescens CR
Erica vallis ‐aranearum CR
Geissorhiza eurystigma CR
Geissorhiza malmesburiensis CR
Geissorhiza purpurascens CR
Gladiolus aureus CR
Gladiolus griseus CR
Hermannia procumbens procumbens CR
Holothrix longicornu CR
Ixia versicolor CR
Lachenalia arbuthnotiae CR
Lachenalia purpureo ‐caerulea CR
Lampranthus tenuifolius CR
Leucadendron floridum CR
Leucadendron lanigerum laevigatum CR
Leucadendron levisanus CR
Leucadendron macowanii CR
Leucadendron stellare CR
Leucadendron thymifolium CR
Leucadendron verticillatum CR
Marasmodes oligocephala CR
Marasmodes polycephala CR
Metalasia distans CR
Mimetes hottentoticus CR
Moraea angulata CR
Moraea aristata CR
Muraltia satureioides salteri CR
Oxalis natans CR
Podalyria microphylla CR
Polycarena silenoides CR
Protea odorata CR
Psoralea glaucina CR
Restio acockii CR
Serruria aemula CR
Serruria furcellata CR
Serruria hirsuta CR
Serruria trilopha CR
Watsonia amabilis CR
Watsonia humilis CR

Data deficient (DD)

Antimima concinna DD
Arctotis angustifolia DD
Cliffortia cymbifolia DD
Cliffortia reticulata DD
Drimia minor DD
Erica velitaris velitaris DD
Gnidia parvula DD
Lampranthus calcaratus DD
Limonium scabrum corymbulosum DD
Lotononis perplexa DD
Ruschia umbellata DD
Senecio coleophyllus DD
Staavia dregeana DD
Thesium repandum DD

Endangered (EN)

Agathosma corymbosa EN
Agathosma glabrata EN
Agathosma latipetala EN
Arctopus dregei EN
Argyrolobium velutinum EN
Aristea lugens EN
Aspalathus varians EN
Athanasia capitata EN
Athanasia crenata EN
Babiana odorata EN
Cliffortia ericifolia EN
Cliffortia hirta EN
Cliffortia marginata EN
Echiostachys spicatus EN
Elegia acockii EN
Erepsia hallii EN
Erica caterviflora caterviflora EN
Erica cyrilliflora EN
Erica ferrea EN
Erica patersonii EN
Geissorhiza radians EN
Gethyllis kaapensis EN
Gladiolus jonquilliodorus EN
Gladiolus quadrangulus EN
Gladiolus vigilans EN
Hessea cinnamomea EN
Ischyrolepis sabulosa EN
Ixia maculata fuscocitrina EN
Ixia tenuifolia EN
Lachenalia liliflora EN
Lampranthus aureus EN
Lampranthus dilutus EN
Lampranthus explanatus EN
Lampranthus leptaleon EN
Lampranthus scaber EN
Lampranthus stenus EN
Leucadendron argenteum EN
Leucadendron lanigerum lanigerum EN
Leucospermum cordatum EN
Leucospermum grandiflorum EN
Leucospermum gueinzii EN
Leucospermum parile EN
Limonium depauperatum EN
Liparia laevigata EN
Lobostemon hottentoticus EN
Macrostylis cassiopoides cassiopoides EN
Macrostylis cassiopoides dregeana EN
Macrostylis villosa villosa EN
Marasmodes dummeri EN
Metalasia octoflora EN
Mimetes arboreus EN
Moraea elegans EN
Moraea tricolor EN
Muraltia brevicornu EN
Muraltia decipiens EN
Passerina paludosa EN
Pentaschistis ecklonii EN
Phylica thunbergiana EN
Podalyria argentea EN
Prionanthium pholiuroides EN
Protea stokoei EN
Pterygodium cruciferum EN
Pterygodium inversum EN
Rafnia angulata ericifolia EN
Restio harveyi EN
Restio micans EN
Senecio verbascifolius EN
Serruria brownii EN
Serruria cyanoides EN
Serruria decumbens EN
Serruria incrassata EN
Serruria linearis EN
Sorocephalus clavigerus EN
Sparaxis grandiflora grandiflora EN
Spatalla prolifera EN
Spiloxene minuta EN
Steirodiscus speciosus EN
Stoebe gomphrenoides EN
Stylapterus barbatus EN
Tritoniopsis elongata EN
Tritoniopsis flexuosa EN
Xiphotheca lanceolata EN
Xiphotheca reflexa EN

Extinct (EX / EW – Extinct in wild)

Babiana blanda EW
Erica bolusiae cyathiformis EW
Erica turgida EW
Erica verticillata EW
Erica alexandri acockii EX
Nemesia micrantha EX

Near Threatened (NT)

Babiana angustifolia NT
Chondropetalum rectum NT
Diastella thymelaeoides thymela
Leucospermum bolusii NT
Leucospermum conocarpodendron viridum NT
Moraea villosa villosa NT
Muraltia trinervia NT
Nemesia strumosa NT
Otholobium bolusii NT
Paranomus sceptrum‐gustavianus NT
Paranomus spicatus NT
Pentaschistis aspera NT
Podalyria sericea NT
Protea lepidocarpodendron NT
Protea lorea NT
Protea scabra NT
Satyrium carneum NT
Serruria adscendens NT
Serruria elongata NT
Serruria rubricaulis NT
Spatalla longifolia NT
Spatalla racemosa NT
Thamnochortus fraternus NT
Thamnochortus punctatus NT

Vulnerable (VU)

Aloe commixta VU
Antimima aristulata VU
Aspalathus acanthophylla VU
Babiana villosula VU
Calopsis impolita VU
Cotula duckittiae VU
Cotula paradoxa VU
Diosma dichotoma VU
Drosanthemum hispifolium VU
Drosanthemum striatum VU
Echiostachys incanus VU
Elegia fenestrata VU
Elegia prominens VU
Elegia verreauxii VU
Erepsia patula VU
Erepsia ramosa VU
Erica capitata VU
Euchaetis schlechteri VU
Euphorbia marlothiana VU
Geissorhiza humilis VU
Geissorhiza purpureolutea VU
Gladiolus recurvus VU
Gnidia spicata VU
Helichrysum dunense VU
Hermannia rugosa VU
Ischyrolepis duthieae VU
Ixia curta VU
Lachenalia orthopetala VU
Lachnaea capitata VU
Lampranthus bicolor VU
Lampranthus filicaulis VU
Lampranthus glaucus VU
Lampranthus peacockiae VU
Lampranthus reptans VU
Lampranthus sociorum VU
Leucadendron coniferum VU
Leucadendron corymbosum VU
Leucadendron linifolium VU
Leucospermum conocarpodendron conocarpodron VU
Leucospermum hypophyllocarpodendron canaliculatum VU
Leucospermum hypophyllocarpodendron hypophyllocarpodendron VU
Leucospermum rodolentum VU
Leucospermum tomentosum VU
Lobostemon capitatus VU
Lotononis prostrata VU
Metalasia capitata VU
Mimetes hirtus VU
Moraea elsiae VU
Muraltia macropetala VU
Pentameris longiglumis longiglumis VU
Polyxena corymbosa VU
Protea longifolia VU
Protea scolymocephala VU
Satyrium foliosum VU
Serruria decipiens VU
Serruria glomerata VU
Serruria inconspicua VU
Serruria krausii VU
Steirodiscus tagetes VU

Vulnerable (VU D2 ‐ single small population)

Acmadenia nivea VU D2
Agathosma pulchella VU D2
Amphithalea ericifolia scoparia VU D2
Aspalathus borboniifolia VU D2
Dimorphotheca walliana VU D2
Erica annectens VU D2
Erica fairii VU D2
Erica limosa VU D2   Erica marifolia VU D2
Erica nana VU D2
Erica paludicola VU D2
Erica pilulifera VU D2
Euryops pectinatus lobulatus VU D2
Liparia parva VU D2
Liparia splendens splendens VU D2
Moraea villosa elandsmontana VU D2
Muraltia comptonii VU D2
Muraltia guthriei VU D2
Muraltia orbicularis VU D2
Roella goodiana VU D2
Serruria collina collina VU D2
Tetraria graminifolia VU D2
Thamnochortus nutans VU D2
Trianoptiles solitaria VU D2  

RED LIST ANIMALS

Critically Endangered (CR)

Heleophryne rosei Table Mountain Ghost Frog CR
Kedestis barbarae bunta Barber's Ranger CR  
Microbatrachella capensis Micro Frog CR

Endangered (EN)

Amietophrynus pantherinus Western Leopard Toad EN
Kedestes lenis Unique Ranger EN
Lepidochrysops methymna dicksoni Dicksons Dark Opal EN  
Mystromys albicaudatus Whitetailed Mouse EN
Psammobates geometricus Geometric Tortoise EN
Trimenia malagrida malagrida Lions Head Copper EN
Xenopus gilli Cape Platanna EN

Extinct (EX)

Pseudobarbus sp Eerste River Redfin EX
Galaxias zebratus? Diep River Galaxias? EX

Vulnerable (VU)

Anthropoides paradiseus Blue Crane  VU
Breviceps gibbosus Cape Rain Frog VU
Cacosternum capense Cape Caco VU
Capensibufo rosei Rose's Mountain Toad VU
Chrysoritis dicksoni Dicksons Strandveld Copper VU  
Circus ranivorus African Marsh Harrier VU
Damaliscus pygargus pygargus Bontebok VU
Equus zebra Cape Mountain Zebra VU
Eremitalpa granti Grant's Golden Mole VU
Polemaetus bellicosus Martial Eagle VU
Pseudocordylus nebulosus Dwarf Crag Lizard VU
Sarothrura affinis Striped Flufftail  VU
Spheniscus demersus African (Jackass) Penguin VU

Ingresado el 12 de junio de 2018 por tonyrebelo tonyrebelo | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

22 de junio de 2018

Interactions are now loaded.

Our iSpot interactions are now uploaded onto iNaturalist as a Project.

We hope next year to have them in a module on their own.

Please check the data.

  1. are all the old dark side interactions on?
  2. do all interactions have an active and a passive link?
  3. are the interactions correctly posted.

Please report any issues here.

How can we use this data?
Unfortunately it is not simple, but the philosophy is:
-- select your taxon
-- decide on the type of interaction you are interested in
... do you need a project or an observation field?
-- choose your filters appropriately from the explore menu.

Here are your important variables:
in the project: &project_id=interactions-s-afr
in the field: &field:Visiting%20a%20flower%20of:%20(Interaction)

Note unfortunately, you can only find observations of the species. You cannot find the species that they are interacting with - that is what we need the interactions module for.
More sophisticated filters are possible (e.g. eaten and parasitized by), but not if they involve taxon data from the other size of the interaction.

e.g. observations with any interaction to Beeflies: (use projects)
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations?subview=grid&verifiable=any&project_id=interactions-s-afr&taxon_id=415424

e.g. observations with Orangebreast Sunbirds visiting flowers: (use fields)
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations?subview=grid&verifiable=any&taxon_id=145130&field:Visiting%20a%20flower%20of:%20(Interaction)

e.g. observations of passive interactions to Figs (i.e. eaten by, parasitized by, etc.):
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations?subview=grid&verifiable=any&taxon_id=50999&field:Passive%20Partner:%20(Interaction)

Ingresado el 22 de junio de 2018 por tonyrebelo tonyrebelo | 1 comentario | Deja un comentario

24 de junio de 2018

Bayesian Keys

From iSpot:

Keys back online
23 December 2015 - 1:02PM
By Tony Rebelo

Our Bayesian Keys are again online.

However, some updates appear not to have been included. I also cannot update them or fix them for the foreseeable future: sorry.
And the pictoral and dictionary links are broken. And I cannot update them.

The keys can be seen here:

http://www.ispotnature.org/webkeys-za/

or more friendly page is:

http://www.ispotnature.org/Quick_Keys
or
http://www.ispotnature.org/Plant%20keys

A brief summary

ANTS - NOT WORKING. http://www.ispotnature.org/webkeys-za/keyintroduction.jsp?selectedKey=webkeys-za/WCAnts

BABIANA Bobejaantjies http://www.ispotnature.org/webkeys-za/keyintroduction.jsp?selectedKey=webkeys-za/Babiana

DIASTELLA Silkypuffs http://www.ispotnature.org/webkeys-za/keyintroduction.jsp?selectedKey=webkeys-za/DiastellaKey

DROSERACEAE Sundews http://www.ispotnature.org/webkeys-za/keyintroduction.jsp?selectedKey=webkeys-za/DroseraKey

EREPSIA Spoonfigs http://www.ispotnature.org/webkeys-za/keyintroduction.jsp?selectedKey=webkeys-za/Erepsia

ERICACEAE (Erica) Heaths http://www.ispotnature.org/webkeys-za/keyintroduction.jsp?selectedKey=webkeys-za/Erica

FERNS http://www.ispotnature.org/webkeys-za/keyintroduction.jsp?selectedKey=webkeys-za/Ferns

METALASIA Blombushes http://www.ispotnature.org/webkeys-za/keyintroduction.jsp?selectedKey=webkeys-za/metalasiaKey

MIMETES Pagodas http://www.ispotnature.org/webkeys-za/keyintroduction.jsp?selectedKey=webkeys-za/Mimetes

PODALYRIA Capesweatpeas http://www.ispotnature.org/webkeys-za/keyintroduction.jsp?selectedKey=webkeys-za/Podalyria (95% done)

PROTEACEAE (Genera) http://www.ispotnature.org/webkeys-za/keyintroduction.jsp?selectedKey=webkeys-za/ProteaceaeKey

SPARAXIS Satinflowers http://www.ispotnature.org/webkeys-za/keyintroduction.jsp?selectedKey=webkeys-za/Sparaxis

in production:

Thicktail Scorpions http://www.ispotnature.org/webkeys-za/keyintroduction.jsp?selectedKey=webkeys-za/buthids

Aliens of the Peninsula http://www.ispotnature.org/webkeys-za/keyintroduction.jsp?selectedKey=webkeys-za/PeninsulaInvasiveAlienKey

Freshwater invertebrates http://www.ispotnature.org/webkeys-za/keyintroduction.jsp?selectedKey=webkeys-za/freshwater_invertebrate_groups_south_africa

Woody Irids http://www.ispotnature.org/webkeys-za/keyintroduction.jsp?selectedKey=webkeys-za/Woody_irids

Last modified 12 September 2017 - 12:28PM

Ingresado el 24 de junio de 2018 por tonyrebelo tonyrebelo | 2 comentarios | Deja un comentario

29 de junio de 2018

Filter Cribsheet

Some shortcuts to filtering data
(this does not include simple terms accessible in the grey filter box: explore there)

Searching comments:
all:
https://www.inaturalist.org/comments?q=silky%20nest
your own comments:
https://www.inaturalist.org/comments?for_me=true&q=silkypuff
also:
https://www.inaturalist.org/comments?commit=Search&q=robin 1

Searching Identifications:
maverick IDs:
https://www.inaturalist.org/identifications?taxon_id=119245&category=maverick
IDs not current:
https://www.inaturalist.org/identifications?taxon_id=119245&current=false
e.g. observations that are currently falsely identified by me relative to community ID.
https://www.inaturalist.org/identifications?current=true&user_id=tonyrebelo&category=maverick
Inactive taxa:
https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/search?is_active=anyutf8=%E2%9C%93&view=grid

Searching others:
?q=protea%20beetle&search_on=tags
&search_on=description
&search_on=tags
&search_on=names (for taxa)
&search_on=place (for localities)

Useful extra terms to add to filters in filter bar:

(for multiple taxa, users, projects, fields separate values with a comma, note "ids" not "id")
&taxon_ids=12345,67890 &geoprivacy=open,obscured

Photos:
With & without: &photos=true or &photos= or &has=photos ; &photos=false

Observations without any ID:
&iconic_taxa=unknown (includes Bacteria)
&identified=false

Observations identified by a particular user (e.g. tony_rebelo):
&ident_user_id=tony_rebelo

Instances of any ID made (community or not) :

&ident_taxon_id=1234.

To exclude:
&without_taxon_id=1234
&not_in_project=redlist-s-afr
&not_in_place=1234
&without_term_id=1 [NB: only works in Identify tool - not in Explore, use the Annotations tab to add]
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/identify?project_id=pillar-parade-s-afr&place_id=113055&taxon_id=47157&without_term_id=1

Specials:
?not_matching_project_rules_for=redlist-s-afr&project_id=redlist-s-afr

Observation Fields:
with a field:
&field:Habitat%20(s%20Afr)
with a field and value:
&field:Habitat%20(s%20Afr)=Nama%20Karoo

Observation field view:
https://www.inaturalist.org/observation_fields/1234
Observation field view for a value: (e.g. Fynbos in Habitats-s-afr):
https://www.inaturalist.org/observation_fields/7498?value=Fynbos (case sensitive)

Annotations:
Plant phenology:
&term_id=12
Sex:

&term_id=9 (male: &term_value_id=11 female: &term_value_id=10)
Life stage:
&term_id=1 (juvenile: &term_value_id=6)
Full listing:
Life Stage: 2=Adult, 3=Teneral, 4=Pupa, 5=Nymph, 6=Larva, 7=Egg, 8=Juvenile, 16=Subimago
Sex: 10=Female, 11=Male
Plant Phenology: 13=Flowering, 14=Fruiting, 15=Budding

OBSCURED DATA: (observations and identify)
no positional data: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations?acc=false
above: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations?acc_above=10000
below: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations?acc_below=3

no localities: &geo=false

user private: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations?geoprivacy=private
user obscured: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations?geoprivacy=obscured
user obscured or private: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations?geoprivacy=obscured_private
taxon private: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations?taxon_geoprivacy=private
taxon obscured: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations?user_id=kueda&taxon_geoprivacy=obscured

LISTS:
?list_id=1471294 (e.g. https://www.inaturalist.org/lists/1471294-Trees-of-South-Africas-Check-List)
trees: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations?list_id=1471294

compare lists (can use projects, places, dates and such)
https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/compare
e.g. CT List : place_id=52355&taxon_id=489493&d2=2019-04-25

IDENTIFY:
exclude a taxon:
&without_taxon_id=
e.g. Moths
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Ingresado el 29 de junio de 2018 por tonyrebelo tonyrebelo | 1 observación | 25 comentarios | Deja un comentario

30 de junio de 2018

The Western Leopard Toad Conservation Committee

The Western Leopard Toad Conservation Committee (WLT-CC) was formed in 2007 with its main function to combine ideas and scientific knowledge to ensure sound, factual information is circulated by the public and in the media.
The committee also aims to oversee the all activities surrounding the species, including that in the field of research, monitoring, fund raising and volunteer work.

The committee contains representatives from the following organizations:
South African National Biodiversity Institute
Cape Nature
City of Cape Town
Overstrand Municipality
Table Mountain National Park
Nature Conservation Corporation
Volunteers of the public

A Biodiversity Management Plan for the Western Leopard Toad has been drafted by members of the committee. This was motivated for the following reasons:

  • The species is listed as Endangered under the IUCN, but conservation can only be effective in urban areas.
  • The nature of the threats (road kills; wetland destruction, and urban development) require national coordination, although implementation is by local and national conservation authorities, with extensive volunteer involvement and property owner support. As such it is an ideal flagship species for the conservation of many other threatened animal species.
  • This flagship species effectively directly promotes the conservation of at least 5 other frog species, 1 mammal species and promotes eco-friendly gardening practices.
  • Its reach extends beyond its immediate conservation, being ideal for fostering public awareness and continued involvement in conservation issues, from alien plants, eco-friendly urban management, and eco-friendly gardening.
  • It thus spans the entire range from urban planning, road verge and green belt maintenance to the man in the garden, uniting them in awareness and connecting nature from the reserves into the urban gardens.

As a potential Public participation exercise and urban conservation awareness campaign this project has no equal.

Ingresado el 30 de junio de 2018 por tonyrebelo tonyrebelo | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

WELCOME TO THE WESTERN LEOPARD TOAD WEBSITE!

Upload the Western Leopard Toad Management Plan here.

The Western Leopard Toad lives in Cape Town and the Agulhas Plain. As such it shares its home with millions of Capetonians. As toads go, it is larger than most and exquisitely marked. It happily co-exists with humans in the suburbs, and would be just another beautiful inhabitant of Cape Town if it were not for the fact that it is an explosive breeder!

Every year, for a few days usually in August, toady goes a courting. This is unusual in that it is confined to less than a week a year. Thousands of toads migrate to suitable ponds. There the males snore and fight for the females. The females lay their eggs and depart, migrating back to their gardens. The exhausted males follow later when no more females arrive at the pools.

Again, this would be perfectly natural were it not for the fact that we have built roads and highways all around their breeding ponds.

And so every year there is a problem that potentially thousands of toads end up pancaked on our roads

Fortunately, there are volunteers who, every year while toads only have sex their minds, man the roads, rescuing toads, controlling traffic and preventing a blood bath. We need your help to save our toads. The frenzy lasts for only two to five nights a year, but in that time the next generation of toads is created or doomed.

If you would to volunteer and be part of the action please call the Western Leopard Toad hotline number given below and join the ranks of your local toad volunteer group.

Contact the WLT Hotline 082 516 3602

Volunteers also collect indispensible information on breeding times, numbers of toads and breeding sites. This is done while rescuing toads, but you can also contribute out of season: see below. These data are used to determine conservation plans for the following year, to obtain funds, and to update the conservation status of the species. Please help.

We urge motorists to stay alert in all toad areas, especially on roads surrounding breeding sites.

Many thanks to everyone who has helped with the breeding effort over the last few years. Your help saw fewer mortalities than ever before and that is great news for the Western Leopard Toad.

LISTEN TO THE TOADSNORE IF YOU HEAR THIS IN YOUR AREA YOU HAVE WESTERN LEOPARD TOADS BREEDING NEAR YOUR HOUSE! PLEASE LET US KNOW ON THE HOTLINE

You can contribute to citizen science!


We need your photos for our extensive identification project! PLEASE take a photo of your toad and and upload it onto our UPLOAD YOUR TOAD site. Follow this link to contribute to citizen science uploadyourtoad

Ingresado el 30 de junio de 2018 por tonyrebelo tonyrebelo | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

Western Leopard Toad Monitoring Programme: UPLOAD YOUR TOAD

If you are an iNaturalist observer merely upload your toad on this site!
If not: sign up here: http://www.inaturalist.org
if you have a smartphone - get the iNaturalist app and load the project WLT Monitoring

The Western Leopard Toad Sclerophys pantherina, is classified as Endangered by the IUCN as it lives within a very small part of Western Cape Province. This toad is in urgent need of conservation, but before we can make comprehensive conservation management plans, we need to find out more about how many adult toads are living in different areas.


Here is how you can help:

Each toad has a unique pattern on its back which can be used to identify it, rather like a fingerprint. If we can get good images of the backs of all the toads in your area, it will help us in three ways:

* We can find out where the toad you photograph goes to breed each year by matching the photograph you take with images taken at breeding sites.
* We can use individual patterns recorded in the photographs as unique marks which can tell us how far the toads travel, especially if the same toad is pictured many times in different places.
* We can find out how long toads live for, and how many get killed on the roads, and the total population sizes.

Here is what to do if you have a smartphone:

Sign up to iNuturalist www.inaturalist.org
Upload the iNat app to your phone: (either Android or Apple: the links are at the very bottom of this page)
Add the project WLT Monitoring to your app : https://www.inaturalist.org/projects/wlt-monitoring

Go out and photograph the toads. The app will prod your for some additional information like Sex, State & Breeding: fill them in and send.

Remember: the picture should be in focus, show the whole of the back of the animal from above, and include something for scale (e.g. R5 coin, matchbox, ruler)

  • A useful photograph shows the markings on the back of the toad which may be used for the identification of this individual as well as an indication of size.
  • A useless photograph for monitoring could be a really groovy mugshot, and quite suitable for an iNaturalist observation However, it isn't any help to monitoring as it does not show the markings on its back which are used for identification, and a scale.
  • You can place several photographs of your toad on your observation: please make sure that one is suitable for monitoring! You can put your groovy photos first if you like.
NB: :Please make a separate observation for each toad: only one toad per observation!

Here is what to do if you dont use a smartphone:

If you have any toads in your garden, or if you find toads at a friend's house or on a walk: * Take a picture of the back of the toad. It will need to be in focus, show the whole of the back of the animal from above, and include something for scale (e.g. R5 coin, matchbox, ruler)
  • A useful photograph shows the markings on the back of the toad which may be used for the identification of this individual as well as an indication of size.
  • A useless photograph for monitoring could be a really groovy mugshot, and quite suitable for an iNaturalist observation However, it isn't any help to monitoring as it does not show the markings on its back which are used for identification, and a scale.
  • You can place several photographs of your toad on iNaturalist: please make sure that one is suitable for monitoring, you can put your groovy photos first if you like.
Make a note of the place where you took the picture. This can be:
  • a street address,
  • a GPS co-ordinate,
  • or you can use the iNaturalist Googlemap to find your locality
Make a note of the time and date that you took the picture (usually your camera will record this). Just load it as you would a normal observation, by clicking on "Upload" and following instructions. Add the Project "WLT Monitoring" if your observation contains a photograph especially for monitoring. NB: :Please make a separate observation for each toad: only one toad per observation! REMEMBER:
  • Make sure that your photo shows the whole back of the toad, it is in focus and contains an object such as a coin for scale.
  • Make a note where you took the photograph.
  • Keep a record of the date and time you took the photograph.

SOME QUICK LINKS

You can find out more about this beast at https://www.inaturalist.org/projects/wlt-monitoring/journal/17400-western-leopard-toad

Click here for Observations of Western Leopard Toads: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations?taxon_id=517449

Most recent observations for Western Leopard Toad Monitoring Project: https://www.inaturalist.org/projects/wlt-monitoring

Last modified June 2018.

Ingresado el 30 de junio de 2018 por tonyrebelo tonyrebelo | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

INSTALL YOUR OWN POOLSAVER!

Initial Concept Supported and Sponsored by Bostik and Alnet.

3 EASY STEPS. Designed by Suzie Jirachareonkul.


Step 1.

Backwash pool by 5cm, cut out 1m x 1.2m garden mesh. Place bricks on sides to keep mesh in place around a corner.

Step 2.

Place a strip of Bostik silicone marine glue to hold mesh in place on top, smooth with finger.

Place strip of glue down each side of the tiles above the water to keep mesh stretched tight



Step 3.

Cut sides of mesh when dry and refill pool


Now any Toad can safely escape from your pool.



 





Additional Protection:



A strip of mesh may be placed over the weir in a similar way to prevent toads from getting sucked down the weir or place a piece of polystyrene in weir and remove toads daily – especially after rain.


Call Suzie 0824761016 for installation



 
Ingresado el 30 de junio de 2018 por tonyrebelo tonyrebelo | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ABOUT WESTERN LEOPARD TOADS

How can I be sure that I am looking at or listening to a Western Leopard Toad?
Look at our pages on the Western Leopard Toad Species Page.

I know that toads breed in a pond near where I live, should I call you?

Most of the useful information on populations comes when the toads are breeding.  Unfortunately, different ponds breed at slightly different times, so we cannot plan ahead.  Please wait until the toads start to call, then
Contact the WLT Hotline 082 516 3602.

If there is a toad rescue group near you, they will be informed and you may wish to join them. Alternatively, a new group may be needed!

I have found a live Western Leopard Toad on the road, what should I do with it?
Carefully take the toad out of the road and place it on the other side in the direction it was facing or moving. Do not move the toad anywhere else. Do not move the toad to a wetland or pond. The toads can navigate to and from their breeding ponds and their foraging areas. They know where they are going even if you don't! If you move them, they might get lost, or worse might end up in the wrong population.

I have found a Western Leopard Toad in my garden, what should I do with it?
Much of the habitat for Western Leopard Toads is now gardens, so the toad is already where it should be. If you fear that the toad might fall into your swimming pool, or be attacked by your dog, then carefully move the toad within your garden but away from these risks. If you have a lot of toads in your garden, and a digital camera, you could help by taking ID pictures and uploading them to the website: UPLOAD YOUR TOAD. Do not move the toad anywhere else. Do not move the toad to a wetland or pond. The toads navigate very well between their own breeding ponds and their "homes" in your garden. If you move them, they might get lost, or worse might end up in the wrong population.

Are Western Leopard Toads dangerous to people?
Like all other toads, Western Leopard Toads have toxins which are designed to protect the toads from being eaten by predators. The toxins are harmless to the touch and only effective if ingested. It is also a fallacy that toads can give you warts - so you and your family are safe!

My dog has attacked a Western Leopard Toad, will it harm my dog?
All toads have toxins which will be distasteful to dogs. The first taste that your dog gets should be so bad that it lets the toad go and never touches another again. If your dog is persistent or if it is worrying the toad, then carefully move the toad to an area of your garden away from this risk. If you have a lot of toads in your garden, and a digital camera, you could help by taking an ID picture and putting it on the UPLOAD YOUR TOAD website. See our page on toads, dogs and vets.

I don't want Western Leopard Toads in my garden because they can kill my dog/s, what should I do?
Much of the habitat for Western Leopard Toads is now gardens, so the toad is already where it should be. If you fear that the toad might be attacked by your dog, then carefully move the toad within your garden but away from these risks.
Toads are very useful in gardens as they eat many pests such as slugs. If you have a lot of toads then consider making an area of your garden which is off-limits to your dogs so that you can place the toads there. You can then put a barrier (such as plastic sheeting) along the bottom of the fence of this section, with openings to allow toads to freely access safer areas in and out of the cordoned section. If you have a lot of toads in your garden, and a digital camera or cellphone, you could help by taking an ID picture and putting it on the UPLOAD YOUR TOAD website. Do not move the toad anywhere else: this is their home and they will just move back. Do not move the toad to a wetland or pond: they live in gardens. If you move the toad, they might get lost and end up breeding in the wrong population. See our page on toads, dogs and vets.

My dog has eaten a Western Leopard Toad, will my dog die?
All toads have toxins which will be distasteful to dogs. The first time your dog tastes a toad should cure him of ever trying again.  If your dog is one of the very rare dogs that persists in worrying toads and it eats the toad entirely you should contact your vet immediately. If you have a lot of toads then consider making an area of your garden which is off-limits to your dogs so that you can place the toads there. You can then put a barrier (such as plastic sheeting) along the bottom of the fence of this section, with openings to allow toads to freely access safer areas in and out of the cordoned section. See our page on toads, dogs and vets.

My cat/dog killed a Western Leopard Toad, what should I do with the toad?
Take an ID picture and put it on the UPLOAD YOUR TOAD website. It might have been photographed by someone else who took a photograph, allowing us to know its age and movements.
Place the toad in a plastic bag with a piece of paper stating the date you found it, the place you found it, your name and address and telephone number. Put the bag in your freezer and Contact the WLT Hotline 082 516 3602. The toad will be very useful in genetic and population studies. 

I found a dead Western Leopard Toad on the road, what should I do with it?
Take an ID picture and put it on the UPLOAD YOUR TOAD website. It might have been photographed by someone else who took a photograph, allowing us to know its age and movements.
Place the toad in a plastic bag with a piece of paper stating the date you found it, the place you found it, your name and telephone number.
Put the bag in your freezer and then please contact the WLT Hotline 082 516 3602. The toad will be very useful in genetic and population studies. 

I found a dead Western Leopard Toad on the road but it is too squashed to pick up, what should I do with it?
Take an ID picture and put it on the UPLOAD YOUR TOAD website. It might have been photographed by someone else who took a photograph, allowing us to know its age and movements and date of death.

We need to make a count of all toads that are killed on the roads. If you cannot pick it up, leave it for a toad patrol who will count it. If there are no toad patrols in your area, you can contact the WLT Hotline 082 516 3602. Otherwise please remove it to the road verge: we do not want other animals that might feed on the dead toads to also become roadkill Please be very careful: dont become roadkill yourself.

Toads keep falling into my swimming pool, what should I do?
Inspect your pool every morning and remove any toads as quickly as possible with a pool net. Rinse the toad with fresh water to remove harmful pool chemicals. Put the toads on the other side of your house away from the pool. This would be a good time to get an ID picture on the UPLOAD YOUR TOAD website. Place a piece of polystyrene or a plank of wood into your pool so that the toads have something to climb onto. This way, the toads won't be so harmed by the chemicals in your pool. An even better solution is to easily install a toad saver in your pool.

A toad died in my swimming pool, what should I do with it?
Take an ID picture and put it on the UPLOAD YOUR TOAD website. It might have been photographed by someone else who took a photograph, allowing us to know its age and movements.
Place the toad in a plastic bag with a piece of paper stating the date you found it, the place you found it, your name and address and telephone number. Put the bag in your freezer and contact the WLT Hotline 082 516 3602.
To prevent more toads and other small animals dying in your pool, place a piece of polystyrene or a plank of wood into the water so that the toads have something to climb onto. Even better install a toad saver in your pool. Please see how easy it is to install a toad saver in your pool.

How do I encourage Western Leopard Toads to use my Garden?
See our Page on Toad Friendly Gardens

Information compiled by John Measey, May 2009.

Ingresado el 30 de junio de 2018 por tonyrebelo tonyrebelo | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

Guidelines for Monitoring and Rescueing Toads

VERY IMPORTANT

Your safety is paramount at all times. You are of no use to toads about to be run over by cars if you have been run over by a car. Be very careful when stopping or parking your car. Take care when opening your car door and leaving your car. In the road, remember that conditions are dangerous and cars may not easily be able to stop. Ensure that you are visible at all times and that your actions can be predicted by motorists. It helps to work in groups.

Do a few practice runs during good weather, even during the day. These are not useless as you will find some toads feeding (very useful data: practice photographing them, and put them back where you found them) and squashed toads will alert you to areas that need attention. Remember to log your hours and fill in a summary form, even if you saw nothing: no toads is not "no data" and helps to define the breeding season.

Road work

Your primary purpose as a volunteer is to save toads that might be killed by motorists. This is the most important task. Recording data is secondary, but very important for planning for next year, for studying long-term trends in population numbers and for future funding.

There are several levels of data. At the coursest level we need to know how many toads were killed. Better still if we also know how many survived. And, of course, how many you rescued.

Not all toads need rescuing. For instance, those already across the road, or those on the safe side of the road. There is no need to pretend to rescue them. But if things are quiet, or there are enough volunteers, we can get useful information out of them.

The next level of data is to sex the toads: male or female?

MALES have dark throats (calling stretches the throat, and black pigments help protect the skin when it inflates; this may not be so marked on young males), robust fore limbs with callosities (these grip onto the females allowing males to ride piggyback), and give a "release" call if gripped behind the front legs (a "let-go-of-me-mate:_I'm_also_male" call, to tell other males not to waste their time). Useful to know, but of no use in sexing, is that on average males are slightly smaller than females.

FEMALES have pale throats (they dont call), more elegant arms, and do not usually give a release call. They tend to be far heftier than the males, especially around the waist (they are packed full of eggs). Of course, after they have laid their eggs they are skinny and haggard looking. They tend to squirm and not want to be grabbed.

Please also record any JUVENILES (less than 70mm long) you find. These do not normally take part in breeding movements, but may be feeding. They are hard to sex. You will not find any TOADLETS (less than 20mm long) at this time of the year (they will only emerge in summer, and by spring are double to triple that size). Any adult (larger than 70mm) that you cannot sex you can label as ADULT: SEX UNKNOWN. Please err on the side of caution: remember that next year we may find that Johny was Julie! So dont guess the sex if it is not obvious - use this category.

You will encounter amplectic toads. These are easy to sex: the female is below (usually bigger), and the male above. Please do not separate them: photograph the male and record them as an AMPLECTIC Pair. (Amplexis is the grasping of the female by the male: he hangs on with his forelegs which are especially adapted to allow him to hold tight).

An ever higher level of data is to measure the toads. This can be done by weighing them (with spring balances {in g please}), measuring them (snout tip to bum {in mm} - we dont usually measure other features like leg length or snout width: that is for the specialists doing special projects), and photographing them (with a digital camera or cell phone). If you photograph the toad with a ruler or on gridded paper (10mm X 10mm) then you dont have to measure them. This is relatively advanced monitoring, but suprisingly, most volunteers are very keen to photograph their toads. And it yields lots of very useful data. If you want to know more you can find it here on the Upload your Toad Website

How is it done

The easiest way to rescue toads is to ride along a route in your car. If you are using the smartphone app, switch it on and switch on your gps. Toads in the road (and veld) do one of two things: they hunker down and freeze (an ideal strategy for avoiding a predator, not so good for avoiding cars) or else - especially males - they hop to the car (hoping that it is a nice big female to jump on - males are like that). Unless you see the toad as it hunkers down you are likely to miss it if it is in the gutter or verge: in the road they are easier to see, but can still be missed - look carefully where you are driving: you are supposed to be rescuing them not pancaking them. Alert toads are very easy to see as their white undersides shine in the car light. Check your safety, get out the car and rescue the toad.

To lift the toad, grab it firmly behind the front legs with your thumb and forefinger. If it is male it usually gives the release call and relaxes; a female usually squirms. Turn your wrist over and look for the black throat, tubercles on the front legs, and abdomen full of eggs: you will now know its sex. Put it in your ice-cream tub (which you have lined with a gridded laminated paper or with a ruler in it).

Some people prefer to work in the open, others get into the car (useful if it is raining hard). But get out of the road before you do anyting else! From the safety of the car/road verge, record the time, state and sex of the toad. Take your photograph (see Upload your Toad Website for how to make a useful photograph) with your iNat cellphone app, or if on an ordinary camera, please record the photograph number. And release the toad on the road verge (taking great care to check that it is safe to leave your car).

Do not move the toad any further. Do not take it to the nearest breeding pond. Do not take it anywhere. It knows where it wants to go and it is not up to you to interfere. If the toad tries to cross the road again, then take it (Left, Right and Left again, Remember!) to the opposite verge and leave it there.

Now that the toad is rescued and you are safe, finish recording the information needed. This is the details of the location. If you have a GPS then record this now. If you dont have a GPS then the street name and number of the nearest house are perfect. If their are no houses, then use odometer readings down the road. If you are using the cellphone app, this will all be recorded automatically for you.

If the toad is dead or seriously injured, then scrape it off the road (a paint scraper or spatula is very handy), move yourself to safety (look what happened to the toad!), and record as much as you can. Sex (obviously it wont call, but look for the dark throat and if the abdomen has popped, eggs or sperm) and photograph it, and pop it in a plastic ziplock bag. Using a permanent cocki marker, give it the number on your data form. I like to write the sex and "address" on it as well, as things get rather hectic, and I dont like it when I accidentally write the wrong number and then dont know who was Arther or Martha.

If it is injured assume that it will live. Put it on a safe place in the road verge. If it is still there the next day, then make a note, or if it is dead, collect it as a specimen: pop it into the ziplock bag and label the bag appropriately.

You have now rescued your toad (if not for breeding, for laboratory analysis) and you should have the following information:
Day
Time
Location
State (live/dead/injured)
Sex (male, female (eggs, empty), amplectic pair, unknown, juvenile)
Photograph

And that is all that is required. Go and rescue another toad. Be aware that things can get hectic: there may be lots of toads. Phone for help if it is needed.

When you have finished your patrol, summarize your data. Use this form downloadable here. Forward the details to your area coordinator. Dowload your photographs onto your computer, and at the end of the season, burn them onto two CDs and give one to your area coordinator (the other is a backup in case the other gets lost). If you are using your cell phone app, all the information will be recorded. If you had opted not to download the data live, to speed up the field work and to save costs, when you get to your wifi, synchronize your app to automatically download all your data to iNaturalist.

Monitoring

This is best done at quieter periods. Simply go to any pond and look and listen for toads and tadpoles. You will need at least five minutes. Stand or sit quietly and wait for the toads to come out of hiding (you will have scared them when you approached the pond, no matter how quietly you came, although some males wont care as they have females on their minds) and record what you see and hear.

There are several things you can record. The number of males visible. Watch them inflate the throat sacs as they call. Count them. Listen to the males calling: count them (not so easy, you will need some practicing!) Amplectic Pairs may be visible: count them.

Look also for egg strings. Count them. Even after the breeding orgy is over, you can visit the ponds and record when then eggs hatch to tadpoles. Count them. And if you are really keen you can return in November/December and record when the tadpoles become toadlets. Count them.

It is important to standardize your counting. There is no point spending 45 minutes today counting and 5 minutes tomorrow. I reocommend that you allow the animals to settle after your approach for 3-5 minutes, and then count for 5-10 minutes. If you have lots of ponds to visit, you cannot afford much longer anyway.

During the hectic nights of rescuing toads, there is not much time to visit the ponds. But if you are not too tired, go during the day: the males are usually active, calling and jockying for positions. You can get very useful data then. If you know of any possible ponds, then visit these during the day: there are probably many more breeding sites that we dont know about as of yet. Knowing where they are means that they can be patrolled next year.

Not many people know that the toadlets also leave the pools in a mass migration. They also get killed on the roads in large numbers. But they are so small that only a very few dedicated teams go and rescue them. Fortunately, summer days are long, and most motorists are off the road by evening on wet days when the toads depart. Contact your coordinator if you are interested. You will need to be available on rainy days from November to New Year.

Information first compiled by Tony Rebelo in 2007, and updated annually.

Ingresado el 30 de junio de 2018 por tonyrebelo tonyrebelo | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario