24 de noviembre de 2022

A Visual Guide to Indian Lygaeinae Identification

work in progress; any attempt to build a key is hard, as no current exhaustive list of the species present in India is available; but still, I felt this might be of some use here, providing help for Milkweed Bugs (subfam. Lygaeinae) identification in India, perhaps helping to build such a reference list that will allow the eventual creation of a key. Only the most common species are featured here, I will complete with time.

Spilostethus

Two species occuring in India.
Spilostethus nymph are much easyly recognised by being the only genus in India bearing red patches on wing buds (the only other possibility being Haemobaphus from Southern Africa), though S. hospes can have entirely dark wing buds, that never happens in S. pandurus.

Spilostethus pandurus


Kanchan Verma, Raipur, CT, 2021

An almost cosmopolitan species, the only one in the genus that eventually reached America. Pretty variable, with at least three valid subspecies, the most well-known being S. pandurus elegans from Southern Africa, alongside with the rarer and more located S. pandurus asiaticus from Madagascar and S. pandurus tetricus from Canarias. There is a questionable synonymy between the typical nominal form(s ?) S. pandurus pandurus and S. pandurus militaris, from Europe, Northern Africa and Near East, that have likely never been formaly synonymised, and are more or less confused - and therefore rarely used.

The form occuring in India, though not formally described, is a Asian form differing slighly from the nominal one. Mostly with an Indomalayan distribution, it occurs westward from Persian Gulf and the East coast of Arabian Peninsula (with the central, desertic areas from the central Arabia appearing as a natural boundary, as the scarce populations from the western coast appear to be closer to that of Europe and Northen Africa, or transitional form), Pakistan (with a boundary and some transitional forms somewhere in Afghanistan), to Sulawesi Eastward, and is likely widely distributed in South to Himalaya in Pakistan, India, Thailand, Cambodge, and Vietnam (with but very few available data from Bengladesh and Myanmar, but unlikely missing from those country, so likely abundant there to), and extends southward on the Oceanic domains to Indonesia, Malaysia and the Sunda Islands.

S. pandurus is overall greater, up to 12, or even 13 mm ; pronotum pattern can bears two palish yellow-greenish spots between the dark fascia, sometimes missing, but never present in hospes. Scutellum is entirely black from base to apex. The membrane is dark, from black to greasy grey, with a white central macula, and a smaller basal spot, sometimes missing, especially on pale and/or withered specimens.
Asian forms differs from the nominal one by being overall darker, with greyish shading, the dark black patterns tending to be outlined by a grey marking that overlaps the light red coloured parts.
The transversal corial bars present on typical forms tend to be reduced, often not reaching inner corial margin and even outer corial margin, and looking closer to a more or less rounded spot.

S. pandurus feeds on a wide variety of plants, including many Asteraceae; as for many other "Milkweed Bugs", it appreciate Apocynaceae, that it is likely immune to toxins and can thrive on. In India often found (though alongside other species) on Calotropis procera.

Spilostethus hospes - "Darth Maul Bug"


Vivek Babu Girija, Kancheepuram, 2022

S. hospes is nicknamed "Darth Maul Bug" in Australia, a name that doesn't appear to be much in use in India, but tends to extand, due to the Internet community, and is due to its strikingly contrasted red and black pattern.

It is true that, in India, with S. pandurus on average more greyish, it will be most often easily recognised by its contrasting colours. (Oddly enough, this is not quite true in Australia where the name comes from, and where other Spilostethus species similarly colored such as S. pacificus or S. decoratus can happen...).

Tending to be slighly smaller (though no known precise measures from India are known) and more gracile, it seems close to the African (in expansion, and now extending up to Southern Europe) S. furcula, and is easily recognised by its scutellum always red at the apex (sometimes this very reduced in some Austro-Malayan populations, but always true for Indian ones), that, alongside with the similarly red clavi, builds an easily-recognisable " _/ " red pattern on the back.
Membrane is usually dark, but rarely really black, most often of a deep dark brown or grey, sometimes lighter (especially in some old/withered specimens), and always unspotted, that allows it to be easily distinguished from the nearby S. pandurus.
The corial pattern includes a rounded black macula on each coria, never reaching the corial margin (unlike the sibbling S. furcula, that bears a transversal dark bar extending from external margin most often to the inner one, but is not present in India).

Like S. pandurus, S. hospes also appreciates Apocynaceae, and both can often be met together on Calotropis procera. Another common host species in Asia is the Asteraceae Emilia sonchifolia.

Aspilocoryphus mendicus


Anubhav Agarwal , Kancheepuram, TN, 2019

Genus close to Graptostethus. Body densely covered with hairs, pronotum mostly dark greyished patterned, with two black spots on it. Red colour very reduced in this species. Can be distinguished from Graptostethus by the darker head, and the white spot on the membrane, that is connected with inner corial margin.

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07 de noviembre de 2022

Lygaeinae bibliography

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Baranowski, R.M. & Brailovsky, H., 1999 - A new species of Hadrosomus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Lygaeidae: Lygaeinae) from the Dominican Republic. Florida Entomologist 82(4): 595-599

Baranowski, R. M. & Slater, A., 2005 - The Lygaeidae of the West Indies. Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 402, 266 pp.

Barber, H. G., 1923 - A preliminary report on the Hemiptera-Heteroptera of Porto Rico collected by the American Museum of Natural History. American Museum Novitates 75: 1-13

Barber, H. G. & Ashlock, P., 1960 – The Lygaeidae of the Van Hoast – American Museum of Natural History Expedition to the Bahama Islands, 1953 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 62(2): 117-124

Brailovsky, H., 1978(a) - Un nuevo género y una nueva especie de Lygaeinae (Hemiptera-Heteroptera-Lygaeidae) del Perú. Anales del Instituto de Biología de la Universidad Nacional Autónomia de México, sería Zoología 49 (1): 115-122

Brailovsky, H., 1978(b) - Estudio del género Lygaeus Fabricius 1794, del Nuevo Mundo, con descripción de cinco nuevas especies (Hemiptera-Heteroptera-Lygaeidae-Lygaeinae). Anales del Instituto de Biología de la Universidad Nacional Autónomia de México, sería Zoología 49 (1): 123-166

Brailovsky, H., 1979 - Revisión del género Craspeduchus Stål, con descripción de dos nuevas especies (Hemiptera-Heteroptera-Lygaeidae-Lygaeinae). Anales del Instituto de Biología de la Universidad Nacional Autónomia de México, sería Zoología 50 (1): 205-226

Brailovsky, H., 1984 - Revisión del género Latochrimnus Brailovsky (Hemiptera-Heteroptera-Lygaeidae-Lygaeinae). Anales del Instituto de Biología de la Universidad Nacional Autónomia de México, sería Zoología 55 (2): 111-128

Brailovsky, H., 2018 - Zygochrimnus henryi, a new genus and species from South America (Hemiptera, Lygaeoidea, Lygaeidae). ZooKeys 796: 319-324

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Brailovsky, H. & Barrera, E., 2015 - Dos especies nuevas del género Acroleucus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea: Lygaeinae) de Colombia y Ecuador | Two new species of the genus *Acroleucus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea: Lygaeinae) from Colombia and Ecuador*. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 86: 634-637

Brailovsky, H. & Brailovsky, J. S., 1979 - Una nueva especie del género Nicuesa Distant (Hemiptera-Heteroptera-Lygaeidae-Lygaeinae)de Perú. Anales del Instituto de Biología de la Universidad Nacional Autónomia de México, sería Zoología 50 (1): 251-254

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Chandra, K., Kushwaha, S., Gupta, D. & Pratap Singh, S., 2011 - Record of some insects associated with Calotropis procera (Asclepiadaceae) in Jabalpur District (M. P.), India. National Journal of Life Sciences 8 (2): 131-134

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Deckert, J., 1985 - Über Lygaeus simulans spec. nov. und L. equestris (Linnaeus, 1758), zwei nahe verwandte paläaktische Lygaeinae (Heteroptera, Lygaeidae) - On Lygaeus simulans spec. nov. and L. equestris (Linnaeus, 1758), Two Closely Related Palearctic Lygaeinae (Heteroptera, Lygaeidae). Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 61 (2): 273-278

Deckert, J., 1988 - Tropidothorax riegeri sp. n. aus Madagaskar (Heteroptera, Lygaeidae, Lygaeinae) - Tropidothorax riegeri sp. n. fromMadagascar (Heteroptera, Lygaeidae, Lygaeinae). Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 64 (2): 319-322

Deckert, J., 2013 - Spilostethus stehliki sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) from Ethiopia. Acta Musei Moraviae, Scientiae biologicae (Brno) 98 (2): 391-394

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Dioli, P., Faraci, F. & Rossotti Vlach, M., 1994 - Osservazioni morfologiche e corologiche su Lygaeus simulans Deckert, 1985 in Italia (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae). Atti XVII Congresso nazionale italiano di Entomologia Udine 13-18 giugno 1994: 195-198

Ernest, K. A., 1989 - Insect Herbivory on a Tropical Unerstory Tree: Effect of Leaf Age and Habitat. Biotropica 21 (3) : 194-199

Faúndez, E. I., Carjaval, M. A., Diez, F. & Raffo, F., 2021 - Una nueva especie de Lygaeus Fabricius, 1794 (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) de Patagonia (Sudamérica). Revista Chilena de Entomología 47(2): 223-229

Faúndez, E. I. & Muñoz, X., 2020 - Primer registro de Oncopeltus (Erythrischius) zonatus (Erichson)
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Faúndez, E. I. & Rocca, J. R., 2017 - A new species of Oncopeltus Stål, 1868 (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) in the nominate subgenus from Ecuador. Zootaxa 4238 (2):

Gao, C., Kondorosy, E. & Bu, W., 2013 - A review of the genus Arocatus from Palaearctic and Oriental Regions (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Lygaeidae). The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 61 (2): 687-704

Goula, M. & Mata, L., 2011 - Spilostethus furcula (Herrich-Schaeffer, 1850), primera cita en el NE ibérico, y otros heterópteros interesantes de la región (Heteroptera, Lygaeidae). Nouvelle Revue d'Entomologie (N. S.) 27 (1): 71-75

Gorski, L. J., 1968 - A new species of Lygaeus from Peru (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 70: 74-77

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Gupta, R. & Singh, D., 2012 - Comparison of external genitalia of four species of genus Spilostethus Stal (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae). Entomon 37 (1-4): 145-152

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[in press] Petschenka, G., Halitschke, R., Roth, A., Stiehler, S., Tenbusch, L., Züst, T., Hartwig, C., Moreno Gámez, J. F., Trusch, R., Deckert, J., Chalušova, K., Vilcinskas, A. & Exnerová, A., 2020 - Predation drives specialized host plant associations in preadaptated milkweed bugs (Heteroptea: Lygaeinae)

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Xiao, C., Ren, S. & Na, H., 1981 -中国蝽类 昆虫鉴定 手册 (第2册 半翅目异翅亚目). 南汗大字生物系•天律自然博物愴. 654 pp


Brailovsky, H., 1982 (a)- Revision del genero Torvochrimnus Brailovsky (Hemiptera - Heteroptera - Lygaeidae - Lygaeinae) con descripcion de dos nuevas especies. Anales del Instituto de Biología, Serie zoología 53 (1): 285-320

Brailovsky, H., 1982 (b) - Revision del complejo Ochrimnus con descripcion de nuevas especies y nuevos generos (Hemiptera - Heteroptera - Lygaeidae - Lygaeinae). Folia entomológica mexicana 51 (1): 1-163

Brailovsky, H., 1983- Nuevas adiciones al genero Acroleucus Stål (Hemiptera - Heteroptera - Lygaeidae - Lygaeinae). Anales del Instituto de Biología, Serie zoología 54 (1): 35-52

Brailovsky, H., 1984 (a)- Revision del genero Latochrimus Brailovsky (Hemiptera - Heteroptera - Lygaeidae - Lygaeinae). Anales del Instituto de Biología, Serie zoología 55 (2): 111-128

Brailovsky, H., 1984 (b)- Revision del genero Malleochrimus Brailovsky (Hemiptera - Heteroptera - Lygaeidae - Lygaeinae). Anales del Instituto de Biología, Serie zoología 55 (2): 129-141

Brailovsky, H. & Barrera, E., 1984 - Cinco especies nuevas, nuevos datos distribucionales y notas biologicas acerca de Lygaeinae americanos (Lygaeidae : Hemiptera : Heteroptera). Anales del Instituto de Biología, Serie zoología 55 (2): 95-109

Shiraki, T. 1913 Investigations upon general insect pests. Special Report of the Formosa Agricultural Experiment Station 8, 670 pp.

Slater, A., 1978 - Taxonomic notes on Lygaeinae from Australia and neighboring areas (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 71: 854-858

Ingresado el 07 de noviembre de 2022 por fabienpiednoir fabienpiednoir | 4 comentarios | Deja un comentario

19 de enero de 2022

23 de abril de 2021

Spilostethus

Spilostethus longulus :

Salalah, Oman, by Moayed Salim Bahajjaj

Desertical species, often found on the ground, under the host plants, such as Calotropis procera. In North Africa, Arabia and Near East. Elongated, head is red with black patterns. Apex of scutellum is red.

Spilostethus macilentus

Bulawayo, Zimbabwe, by nickypegg

Much similar to S. longulus, to the point it was, at first, confused with it by its author, Carl Stål. A Southern African species, differs from longulus by its overall, darker habit. Head mostly black, apically and basally around the eyes, with either a "Y"-shaped red pattern, or but a simple, faint, red patch. Scutellum red apically.

Ingresado el 23 de abril de 2021 por fabienpiednoir fabienpiednoir | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

17 de marzo de 2021

Lygaeinae de Guyane

Oncopeltus cingulifer / sandarachatus

Deux espèces difficiles à distinguer, qui ont fait l'objet de confusion par le passé. Oncopeltus sandarachatus n'ayant jamais été rapporté de la région, il s'agit probablement ici plutôt d'O.cingulifer, mais dans l'attente de trancher, je mentionne ici les deux noms.

Craspeduchus variegatus

Ingresado el 17 de marzo de 2021 por fabienpiednoir fabienpiednoir | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

04 de junio de 2020

Genus Erythrischius in North America

Oncopeltus sandarachatus / Oncopeltus cingulifer.


Orlando, by Andrew Lamb, August 28th 2017

Two very close species, hard to distinguish. The key features remains unclear, and subspecies or varieties have been described, that are not necessarly of some taxonomic importance. It is not impossible that, in the future, observations refered to both the two would have to be reviewed in the light of new discoveries.
O'Rourke's subspecies antillensis poses problems that should be examed.

Smaller, on average : 9-12 mm, about the size of a Lygaeus sp.. The size remains by far the simplest way to distinguish from O. fasciatus. Appears to be the most common Oncopeltus species in Florida, with Oncopeltus fasciatus more uncommon.

More slender, often with a contrasting bright red head. Pronotal pattern also slighly different, though pretty variable, in many case more enlarged on the posterior margin, often reaching the posterior angles. Last three abdominal segment bright red, visible ventrally only on adults, making ventral view often easier to identify than dorsal ones.

https://ibb.co/DYLMnMR




Ingresado el 04 de junio de 2020 por fabienpiednoir fabienpiednoir | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

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