03 de noviembre de 2022

Mushroom - Saprotrophic nutrition

Saprotrophic nutrition [see also: photochemistry, photochemicals]

A Chemotroph, in contrast to phototrophs which use photons, is an organism that obtains energy by the oxidation of electron donors in their environments. These molecules can be organic or inorganic.
Chemotrophs can be either autotrophic or heterotrophic.

Chemoautotrophs, in addition to deriving energy from chemical reactions, synthesize all necessary organic compounds from carbon dioxide.
Chemoheterotrophs (or chemotrophic heterotrophs) are unable to fix carbon to form their own organic compounds.

Lysis /ˈlaɪsɪs/ is the breaking apart a larger particle into smaller pieces, say breaking down of the membrane of a cell, often by viral, enzymic, or osmotic ( "lytic") mechanisms.
Cell lysis is used in laboratories to break open cells and purify or further study their contents, as in protein purification, DNA extraction, RNA extraction, or in purifying organelles.

Saprotrophic nutrition (or lysotrophic nutrition), is a process of chemoheterotrophic extracellular digestion involved in the processing of decayed (dead or waste) organic matter.

Ingresado el 03 de noviembre de 2022 por lunababy22 lunababy22 | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

29 de octubre de 2022


Dimorphism [dī-môr′fĭz′əm]: the condition or the properties of being dimorphic (or dimorphous)

  • the existence of two different forms (as of color or size) of a species
  • the existence of an organ in two different forms

Meaning of “Dimorphic” in genetics
The existence of two distinct types of an individual (plant) within a species, usually differing in one or more characteristics such as coloration, size, and shape.

What is dimorphic flower?
Floral dimorphism: refers to differences between flowers their sex functions are separated between flowers of the plant (monoecy), or between individuals (dioecy).
Sexual dimorphism: (for dioecious populations in which) different sex functions (female and male) occur on separate individuals.

What is dimorphic condition?
[Sexual dimorphism] the condition where the sexes of the same species exhibit different characteristics, particularly characteristics not directly involved in reproduction. The opposite of dimorphism is monomorphism, which is when both biological sexes are phenotypically indistinguishable from each other.

Cleistogamy is a phenomenon (of certain species) of plants which can propagate by using non-opening, self-pollinating flowers. The word cleistogamy means “closed marriage”. The flowers which show cleistogamy are known as cleistogamous (CL) flowers. It is well known in the grass family, such as peas, peanuts and pansy.

The more common opposite of cleistogamy (or "closed marriage"), is called chasmogamy (CH), or "open marriage". Virtually all plants that produce cleistogamous flowers also produce chasmogamous ones. The obvious disadvantage of cleistogamy is that self-fertilization occurs, which may suppress the creation of genetically superior plants.

For example, Viola shows both cleistogamy and chasmogamy.

Ingresado el 29 de octubre de 2022 por lunababy22 lunababy22 | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

26 de octubre de 2022

Extended part for Chamomile - microRNA

microRNA (Wikipedia)
miRNAs can bind to target messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts of protein-coding genes and negatively control their translation or cause mRNA degradation.
It is of key importance (for miRNAs) to identify the miRNA targets accurately.
Plant miRNAs usually have near-perfect pairing with their mRNA targets, which induces gene repression through cleavage of the target transcripts. In contrast, animal miRNAs are able to recognize their target mRNAs by using as few as 6–8 nucleotides (the seed region) at the 5' end of the miRNA, which is not enough pairing to induce cleavage of the target mRNAs. Combinatorial regulation is a feature of miRNA regulation in animals. A given miRNA may have hundreds of different mRNA targets, and a given target might be regulated by multiple miRNAs.

Under a standard nomenclature system, names are assigned to experimentally confirmed miRNAs before publication:
The prefix:-

  • "miR" is followed by a dash and a number, the latter often indicating order of naming. For example, miR-124 was named and likely discovered prior to miR-456.
  • Species of origin is designated with a three-letter prefix, e.g., hsa-miR-124 is a human (Homo sapiens) miRNA and oar-miR-124 is a sheep (Ovis aries) miRNA. Other common prefixes include "v" for viral (miRNA encoded by a viral genome) and "d" for Drosophila miRNA (a fruit fly commonly studied in genetic research).
  • A capitalized "miR-" refers to the mature form of the miRNA, while the uncapitalized "mir-" refers to the pre-miRNA and the pri-miRNA. The miRNAs encoding genes are also named using the same three-letter prefix according to the conventions of the organism gene nomenclature.

The suffix:-

  • Pre-miRNAs, pri-miRNAs and genes that lead to 100% identical mature miRNAs but that are located at different places in the genome are indicated with an additional dash-number suffix. For example, the pre-miRNAs hsa-mir-194-1 and hsa-mir-194-2 lead to an identical mature miRNA (hsa-miR-194) but are from genes located in different genome regions.
  • miRNAs with nearly identical sequences except for one or two nucleotides are annotated with an additional lower case letter. For example, miR-124a is closely related to miR-124b. For example:
    hsa-miR-181a: aacauucaACgcugucggugAgu
    hsa-miR-181b: aacauucaUUgcugucggugGgu

The function of miRNAs appears to be in gene regulation. miRNA is complementary to a part of one or more mRNAs.

  • In animals the match-ups are imperfect, miRNAs usually complementary to a site in the 3' UTR (three prime untranslated region) whereas plant miRNAs are usually complementary to coding regions of mRNAs.
  • Perfect or near perfect base pairing with the target RNA promotes cleavage of the RNA. This is the primary mode of plant miRNAs.
    miRNAs appear to regulate the development and function of the nervous system. Neural miRNAs are involved at various stages of synaptic development, including dendritogenesis (involving miR-132, miR-134 and miR-124), synapse formation and synapse maturation (where miR-134 and miR-138 are thought to be involved).
    Some studies find altered miRNA expression in Alzheimer's disease, as well as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression and anxiety disorders.

Chronic alcohol abuse results in persistent changes in brain function mediated in part by alterations in gene expression. miRNA regulates many downstream genes and is significant in respect of the reorganization of synaptic connections or long term neural adaptations connected with the behavioral change caused by alcohol withdrawal and/or dependence. Up to 35 different miRNAs have been found to be altered in the alcoholic post-mortem brain.

Small interfering RNA (siRNA), sometimes known as short interfering RNA or silencing RNA, is a class of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) at first non-coding RNA molecules, typically 20-24 (normally 21) base pairs in length, similar to miRNA, and operating within the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. It interferes with the expression of specific genes with complementary nucleotide sequences by degrading mRNA after transcription, preventing translation.
siRNAs delivered via lipid based nanoparticles have been shown to have therapeutic potential for central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Central nervous disorders are not uncommon, but the blood brain barrier (BBB) often blocks access of potential therapeutics to the brain. siRNAs that target and silence efflux proteins on the BBB surface have been shown to create an increase in BBB permeability. siRNA delivered via lipid based nanoparticles is able to cross the BBB completely.

See also: Role of 5′- and 3′-untranslated regions of mRNAs in human diseases

Ingresado el 26 de octubre de 2022 por lunababy22 lunababy22 | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

06 de octubre de 2022


A critical appraisal (based on a biological/genetic viewpoint) by David Moore, from Britannica. [retrieved in October 2022]

Fungi were once considered plants. However, nearly all fungal cell walls contain chitin, which is also found in the exoskeletons of many invertebrate animals. In addition, both chytrid zoospores and animal sperm share in common the presence of a single posterior flagellum. As a result of these differences and extensive molecular sequence comparisons, animals and fungi are considered to be sister groups. Some scientists include animals and fungi in a common ancestor clade, called the opisthokont clade (opistho meaning posterior and kont meaning flagellum). The classification presented above reflects the division of fungi on the basis of phylogenetic relationships and is generally agreed upon. However, there remain many orders for which no general consensus has been reached regarding inclusion in classes, subclasses, or subphyla.

The following classification is with reference to:-

  1. Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the Fungi, 10th ed. (2008)
  2. Assembling the Fungal Tree of Life (AFTOL) which is a work in progress – a project funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation.

Key points:
The phylogenetic classification of fungi divides the kingdom into 7 phyla, 10 subphyla, 35 classes, 12 subclasses, and 129 orders.

The true fungi, which make up the monophyletic clade called kingdom Fungi, comprise seven phyla: Chytridiomycota, Blastocladiomycota, Neocallimastigomycota, Microsporidia, Glomeromycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota (the latter two being combined in the subkingdom Dikarya).

Annotated (incertae sedis: “unknown position”) classification
Eukaryotic (with true nuclei); acellular (e.g., highly adapted parasites), unicellular (e.g., species adapted to life in small volumes of fluid), or multicellular (filamentous) with hyphae; cell walls composed of chitin, polysaccharides (e.g., glucans), or both; can be individually microscopic in size (i.e., yeasts); at least 99,000 species of fungi have been described.

o Phylum Chytridiomycota
Mainly aquatic, some are parasitic or saprotrophic; unicellular or filamentous; chitin and glucan cell wall; primarily asexual reproduction by motile spores (zoospores); mycelia; contains 2 classes.

 Class Chytridiomycetes
Aquatic parasitic (on algae, fungi, or flowering plants) or saprotrophic; unicellular or filamentous; motile cells characterized by a single posterior flagellum; monocentric thallus or polycentric rhizomycelial; contains 3 orders.

 Order Chytridiales
Mainly found in soil; examples of genera include Chytridium, Chytriomyces, and Nowakowskiella.

 Order Rhizophydiales
Aquatic parasitic (on algae) or saprotrophic (in soil or on pollen, keratin, or chitin); sporangia spherical or angular; rhizoids branched; example genus is Rhizophydium.

 Order Spizellomycetales
Parasitic on soil organisms and plants; holocarpic (having all the thallus involved in the formation of the fruiting body) or eucarpic; example genera include Spizellomyces and Powellomyces.

 Class Monoblepharidomycetes
Asexual reproduction by zoospores or autospores; filamentous, branched or unbranched thallus; contains 1 order.

 Order Monoblepharidales
Sexual reproduction by motile gamete (antherozoid) fertilizing nonmotile differentiated egg, resulting in thick-walled oospore; example genus is Monoblepharis.

o Phylum Neocallimastigomycota
Found in digestive tracts of herbivores; anaerobic; zoospores with one or more posterior flagella; lacks mitochondria but contains hydrogenosomes (hydrogen-producing, membrane-bound organelles that generate energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate, or ATP); contains 1 class.

 Class Neocallimastigomycetes
Contains 1 order.

 Order Neocallimastigales
Digest cellulose; example genus is Neocallimastix.

o Phylum Blastocladiomycota
Parasitic on plants and animals, some are saprotrophic; aquatic and terrestrial; flagellated; alternates between haploid and diploid generations (zygotic meiosis); contains 1 class.

 Class Blastocladiomycetes
Parasitic or saprotrophic; contains 1 order.

 Order Blastocladiales
Parasitic (on many different substrates, including decaying fruits) or saprotrophic; example genera include Allomyces and Coelomomyces.

o Phylum Microsporidia
Parasitic on animals and protists; unicellular; highly reduced mitochondria; phylum not subdivided due to lack of well-defined phylogenetic relationships within the group.

o Phylum Glomeromycota
Forms obligate, mutualistic, symbiotic relationships in which hyphae penetrate into the cells of roots of plants and trees (arbuscular mycorrhizal associations); coenocytic hyphae; reproduces asexually; cell walls composed primarily of chitin.

 Class Archaeosporomycetes
Arbuscular mycorrhizal; spores form singly or in loose clusters.

 Order Archaeosporales
Arbuscular mycorrhizal; example genera include Archaeospora and Geosiphon.

 Class Glomeromycetes
Arbuscular mycorrhizal; single or clustered spores; contains 4 orders.

 Order Diversisporales
Arbuscular mycorrhizal; forms complexes of spores; example genera include Acaulospora, Diversispora, and Pacispora.

 Order Gigasporales
Arbuscular mycorrhizal; uses extra-radical auxiliary cells instead of vesicles in plant roots.

 Order Glomerales
Arbuscular mycorrhizal; forms single spores, loose clusters of spores, or compact sporocarps (fruiting bodies); example genus is Glomus.

 Class Paraglomeromycetes
Arbuscular mycorrhizal; forms complexes of spores.

 Order Paraglomerales
Arbuscular mycorrhizal; example genus is Paraglomus.

o Subphylum Mucoromycotina (incertae sedis; not assigned to any phylum)
Parasitic, saprotrophic, or ectomycorrhizal (forms mutual symbiotic associations with plants); asexual or sexual reproduction; branched mycelium; contains 3 orders that represent the traditional Zygomycota.

 Order Mucorales (pin molds)
Parasitic or saprotrophic; filamentous; nonmotile spores (aplanospores); coenocytic mycelium; asexual reproduction by formation of sporangiospores; example genera include Mucor, Parasitella, Phycomyces, Pilobolus, and Rhizopus.

 Order Endogonales
Saprotrophic or mycorrhizal; filamentous; coenocytic mycelium; underground sporocarp; example genera include Endogone, Peridiospora, Sclerogone, and Youngiomyces.

 Order Mortierellales
Parasitic or saprotrophic; fine mycelium, branched (arachnoid); sporangia with 1 or many spores; may form chlamydospores (thick-walled asexual spores); produces garliclike odour; example genera include Mortierella, Dissophora, and Modicella.

o Subphylum Entomophthoromycotina (incertae sedis)
Pathogenic, saprotrophic, or parasitic; coenocytic or septate mycelium; rhizoids formed by some species; conidiophore branched or unbranched; conidia forcibly discharged; contains 1 order.

 Order Entomophthorales
Primarily parasitic on insects, some may be saprotrophic in soil; coenocytic mycelium, may become septate; example genera include Entomophthora, Ballocephala, Conidiobolus, Entomophaga, and Neozygites.

o Subphylum Zoopagomycotina (incertae sedis)
Endoparasitic (lives in the body) or ectoparasitic (lives on the body) on nematodes, protozoa, and fungi; thallus branched or unbranched; asexual and sexual reproduction; contains 1 order.

 Order Zoopagales
Parasitic on amoebas, rotifers, nematodes, and other protozoa; asexual reproduction by conidia borne singly or in chains, not forcibly discharged; example genera include Cochlonema, Rhopalomyces, Piptocephalis, Sigmoideomyces, Syncephalis, and Zoopage.

o Subphylum Kickxellomycotina (incertae sedis)
Saprotrophic, may be parasitic on fungi, can form symbiotic associations; thallus forms from holdfast on other fungi; mycelium branched or unbranched; asexual and sexual reproduction; contains four orders.

 Order Kickxellales
Primarily saprotrophic; mycelium highly branched and occasionally coenocytic; example genera include Kickxella, Coemansia, Linderina, and Spirodactylon.

 Order Dimargaritales
Mycoparasitic; example genera include Dimargaris, Dispira, and Tieghemiomyces.

 Order Harpellales
Endosymbiotic, found in the digestive tracts of insects, including mayflies and stoneflies; thallus simple or branched, septate; asexual reproduction by trichospores; sexual reproduction zygomycetous; example genera include Harpella, Furculomyces, Legeriomyces, and Smittium.

 Order Asellariales
Endosymbiotic, found in the digestive tracts of arthropods; thallus branched, septate, attached by basal coenocytic cell; asexual reproduction by arthrospores; example genera include Asellaria and Orchesellaria.

o Phylum Ascomycota (sac fungi)
Symbiotic with algae to form lichens, some are parasitic or saprotrophic on plants, animals, or humans; some are unicellular, but most are filamentous; hyphae septate with 1, rarely more, perforation in the septa; cells uninucleate or multinucleate; asexual reproduction by fission, budding, or fragmentation or by conidia that are usually produced on sporiferous (spore-producing) hyphae, the conidiophores, which are borne loosely on somatic (main-body) hyphae or variously assembled in asexual fruiting bodies; sexual reproduction by various means resulting in the production of meiosphores (ascospores) formed by free-cell formation in saclike structures (asci), which are produced naked or, more typically, are assembled in characteristic open or closed bodies (ascocarps, also called ascomata); ascomycota include some cup fungi, saddle fungi, and truffles; this phylum is sometimes included in the subkingdom Dikarya with its sister group, Basidiomycota.

 Subphylum Taphrinomycotina
Pathogenic on some plants; unicellular or filamentous; asci produced on the plant surface; ascocarp absent; contains 4 classes.

 Class Taphrinomycetes
Parasitic or pathogenic on plants; naked asci; contains 1 order.

 Order Taphrinales
Parasitic on plants, causing gall formation; naked asci; example genera include Taphrina and Protomyces.

 Class Neolectomycetes
Parasitic or pathogenic on plants; some with large ascocarps; contains 1 order.

 Order Neolectales
Parasitic on plant roots; produces large ascocarps; forms yeastlike conidia; example genus is Neolecta.

 Class Pneumocystidomycetes
Parasitic or pathogenic in animals; contains 1 order.

 Order Pneumocystidales
Parasitic in the alveoli of the lungs of some vertebrates; asexual reproduction by fission; example genus is Pneumocystis.

 Class Schizosaccharomycetes
Primarily saprotrophic; groups of fused ascospores may be present; contains 1 order.

 Order Schizosaccharomycetales (fission yeasts)
Saprotrophic in fruit juice; asexual reproduction by fission; asci fuse to form groups of 4 or 8 ascospores; example genus is Schizosaccharomyces.

 Subphylum Saccharomycotina (true yeasts)
Saprotrophic on plants and animals, including humans, occasionally pathogenic in plants and humans; unicellular; found in short chains; asexual reproduction by budding or fission; contains common yeasts that are relevant to industry (e.g., baking and brewing) and that cause common infections in humans; contains 1 class.

 Class Saccharomycetes
Saprotrophic or pathogenic; yeasts reproduce by budding or fission; contains 1 order.

 Order Saccharomycetales (ascomycete yeasts)
Saprotrophic or pathogenic in plants and humans; cell walls lack chitin; asci form singly or in chains; example genera include Saccharomyces, Candida, Dipodascopsis, and Metschnikowia.

 Subphylum Pezizomycotina
Symbiotic with algae to form lichen; contains all ascomycetes able to produce ascomata; many form ascocarps, although some have lost the ability to undergo meiosis and cannot produce asci (formerly Deuteromycota); contains 10 classes.

 Class Arthoniomycetes
Forms lichens; contains 1 order.

 Order Arthoniales
Forms lichens; produces asci that elongate to discharge spores; example genera include Arthonia, Dirina, and Roccella.

 Class Dothideomycetes
Pathogenic, endophytic, or epiphytic on plants, saprotrophic in soil, parasitic on fungi and animals, or symbiotic with algae to form lichens; spores undergo ascolocular development (in special hyphae pockets); includes subclasses Dothideomycetidae and Pleosporomycetidae; contains 10 orders.

 Order Capnodiales (sooty molds)
Grows on honeydew excreted by insects or on exudates on the leaves of plants; melanoid pigments in cell walls of hyphae; included in subclass Dothideomycetidae; example genera include Capnodium, Scorias, and Mycosphaerella.

 Order Dothideales
Forms lichens; asci borne in clusters in a locule; included in subclass Dothideomycetidae; example genera include Dothidea, Dothiora, Sydowia, and Stylodothis.

 Order Hysteriales
Found on woody branches of trees; stroma is boat-shaped, opening by a longitudinal slit that renders it apothecium-like; asci borne among pseudoparaphyses; example genera include Hysterium and Hysteropatella.

 Order Jahnulales
Found in freshwater environments; ascospores covered with sticky gelatin sheaths or apical appendages; hyphae adapted for attaching to wet substrates; example genera include Aliquandostipite, Jahnula, and Patescospora.

 Order Myriangiales
Parasitic on fungi and insects, epiphytic on leaves and stems; found mostly in tropical or subtropical regions; ascocarp present; asci borne singly in locules arranged at various levels in a globose stroma; included in subclass Dothideomycetidae; example genera include Myriangium and Elsinoe.

 Order Pleosporales
Forms lichens, some are pathogenic on plants; asci borne in a basal layer among pseudoparaphyses; included in subclass Pleosporomycetidae; example genera include Pleospora, Phaeosphaeria, Lophiostoma, Sporormiella, and Helminthosporium.

 Order Botryosphaeriales (incertae sedis; not placed in any subclass)
Pathogenic and endophytic in plants; ascospores are forcibly discharged; example genera include Botryosphaeria and Guignardia.

 Order Microthyriales (incertae sedis; not placed in any subclass)
Saprotrophic or epiphytic on stems and leaves.

 Order Patellariales (incertae sedis; not placed in any subclass)
Parasitic and saprotrophic; flask-shaped (perithecium-like) fruiting bodies; example genus is Patellaria.

 Order Trypetheliales (incertae sedis; not placed in any subclass)
Forms lichen; most have hyaline ascospores.

 Class Eurotiomycetes
Parasitic on animals, saprotrophic in soil; small, evanescent asci, found at various levels within spherical ascocarp; includes subclasses Chaetothyriomycetidae, Eurotiomycetidae, and Mycocaliciomycetidae; contains 7 orders.

 Order Chaetothyriales
Pathogenic in humans or saprotrophic on plants; ascocarps contain sterile filaments on the reproductive organs; included in subclass Chaetothyriomycetidae; example genera include Capronia, Ceramothyrium, and Chaetothyrium.

 Order Pyrenulales
Parasitic, saprotrophic, or symbiotic with algae to form lichens; asci evanescent; ascospores may be pigmented; included in subclass Chaetothyriomycetidae; example genera include Pyrenula and Pyrgillus.

 Order Verrucariales
Forms lichens on rocks and other substrates; perithecia (closed ascocarps with a pore in the top) have small depression-like spots on the surface; included in subclass Chaetothyriomycetidae; example genera include Agonimia, Dermatocarpon, Polyblastia, and Verrucaria.

 Order Coryneliales
Forms lichens; asci in ascostromata with funnel-shaped ostioles at maturity; included in subclass Eurotiomycetidae; examples of genera include Corynelia and Caliciopsis.

 Order Eurotiales
Parasitic in animals, saprotrophic in soil; asci evanescent; included in subclass Eurotiomycetidae; examples of genera include Eurotium, Penicillium, Talaromyces, Elaphomyces, Trichocoma, and Byssochlamys.

 Order Onygenales
Forms lichens; asci are formed in a mazaedium (a fruiting body consisting of a powdery mass of free spores interspersed with sterile threads, enclosed in a peridium or wall structure) and are evanescent; included in subclass Eurotiomycetidae; examples of genera include Onygena, Gymnoascus, Trichophyton, and Arthroderma.

 Order Mycocaliciales
Saprotrophic on lichens; includes nonlichenized calicioid fungi; ascomata stalked or sessile; included in subclass Mycocaliciomycetidae; examples of genera include Mycocalicium, Chaenothecopsis, Stenocybe, and Sphinctrina.

 Class Laboulbeniomycetes
Primarily parasitic on insects; contains 2 orders.

 Order Laboulbeniales
Parasitic on insects, including the true flies (order Diptera); ascospore attaches to and penetrates insect exoskeleton to absorb nutrients; spinelike ascoma; example genera include Laboulbenia, Rickia, and Ceratomyces.

 Order Pyxidiophorales
Ectoparasitic on mandibulate arthropods, may be mycoparasitic; mycelial; anamorphs lack vesiculate conidiophores; example genus includes Pyxidiophora.

 Class Lecanoromycetes
Forms lichens; thick ascal apex with narrow canal; includes subclasses Acarosporomycetidae, Lecanoromycetidae, and Ostropomycetidae; contains 10 orders.

 Order Acarosporales
Forms lichens; asci unitunicate and lecanoralean (resembling asci of the genus Lecanora), with nonamyloid or slightly amyloid inner ascus apex (tholus); included in subclass Acarosporomycetidae; example genera include Acarospora, Pleopsidium, and Sarcogyne.

 Order Lecanorales
Forms lichens; apothecia fruiting bodies; includes reindeer mosses, cup lichens, and beard lichens; included in subclass Lecanoromycetidae; example genera include Cladonia, Lecanora, Parmelia, Ramalina, and Usnea.

 Order Peltigerales
Forms lichens; thallus may be large and lobate; apothecia may be lecanorine or lecideine (darkened margin sometimes lacking a thalline margin); includes dog lichens; included in subclass Lecanoromycetidae; example genera include Coccocarpia, Collema, Nephroma, Pannaria, and Peltigera.

 Order Teloschistales
Forms lichens; found on rocks close to the sea; thallus sometimes composed of granules; may have poorly defined lobed margins; includes orange sea lichen and shore lichen (yellow scales); included in subclass Lecanoromycetidae; example genera include Caloplaca, Teloschistes, and Xanthoria.

 Order Agyriales
Forms lichens; thallus may be nonlobate; includes bullseye lichen and disk lichen; included in subclass Ostropomycetidae; examples of genera include Agyrium, Placopsis, Trapelia, and Trapeliopsis.

 Order Baeomycetales
Forms lichens; stalked or sessile ascomata; includes cap lichen; included in subclass Ostropomycetidae; example genus includes Baeomyces.

 Order Ostropales
Forms lichens; apothecia may be capitate-stipitate or sessile turbinate; includes dimple lichen, gomphillus lichen, and common script lichen; included in subclass Ostropomycetidae; examples of genera include Ostropa, Stictis, Gyalecta, Gomphillus, Graphis, Odontotrema, Porina, and Thelotrema.

 Order Umbilicariales
Forms lichens; grows on rocks; thallus is often foliose and is attached to substrate by an umbilicus; includes rock tripe; examples of genera include Lasallia and Umbilicaria.

 Order Pertusariales
Forms lichens; grows on rocks, mosses, and barks; primary thallus may be crustose, squamulose, or foliose; clustered or solitary apothecia; ascospores may be colourless; ascocarps may be absent; includes peppermint drop lichen; included in subclass Ostropomycetidae; examples of genera include Coccotrema, Icmadophila, Ochrolechia, and Pertusaria.

 Order Candelariales (incertae sedis; not placed in any subclass)
Forms lichens; commonly grows on rocks and shrubs; thallus is yellow to orange in colour; most are nitrophilus; apothecia may be lecanorine; thallus may be foliose; example genera include Candelaria and Candelariella.

 Class Leotiomycetes
Parasitic on plants, especially fruits; thin-walled, inoperculate asci, generally with amyloid apical rings; includes mildews; contains 5 orders.

 Order Cyttariales
Parasitic on plants, causes gall formation, especially on beech trees; spherical, dimpled ascocarps that are yellow to orange in colour; example genus includes Cyttaria.

 Order Erysiphales (powdery mildews)
Parasitic on plants; ascospores or conidia germinate on leaves and stems; mycelium septate, branched; example genera include Erysiphe, Blumeria, and Uncinula.

 Order Helotiales
Pathogenic on plants, saprotrophic, endophytic, mycorhizzal, mycoparasitic, or symbiotic on roots; inoperculate asci with distinct hymenium; apothecia disk-shaped to goblet-shaped; example genera include Dactylella, Hymenoscyphus, and Ascocoryne.

 Order Rhytismatales
Pathogenic on plants; asci have apical rings; ascomata develop in host tissue; ascospores long and thin; includes tar spot fungi; example genera include Rhytisma, Lophodermium, and Cudonia

 Order Thelebolales
Coprophilus (grows on dung); ascomata small, disk-shaped to globose; may have polysporus asci; example genera include Thelebolus, Coprotus, and Ascozonus.

 Class Lichinomycetes
Parasitic, saprotrophic, or symbiotic; inoperculate asci; includes peltula lichen; contains 1 order.

 Order Lichinales
Forms lichens; asci may be lecanoralean or prototunicate; example genera include Heppia, Lichina, and Peltula.

 Class Orbiliomycetes
Parasitic or saprotrophic, with many found on bark; includes some cup fungi; contains 1 order.

 Order Orbiliales
Parasitic on nematodes, non-lichen-forming; inoperculate ascus, may bifurcate and have a flexible stalk and truncated apex; example genera include Orbilia and Hyalorbilia.

 Class Pezizomycetes
Saprotrophic on wood, soil, or dung; unitunicate, operculate asci; includes some cup fungi; contains 1 order.

 Order Pezizales
Saprotrophic; amyloid asci; ascomata nonstalked, may be goblet-shaped or saucer-shaped; ascocarp may be operculate aboveground or be borne belowground; includes truffles; example genera include Peziza, Glaziella, Morchella, Pyronema, Terfezia, and Tuber.

 Class Sordariomycetes
Pathogenic on plants, causing canker formation, some are saprotrophic; ascomata typically perithecial with prominent ostioles and may be pear-shaped to globose; includes subclasses Hypocreomycetidae, Sordariomycetidae, and Xylariomycetidae; contains 19 orders.

 Order Coronophorales
Saprotrophic on wood; asci in ascostromata with irregular or round openings; ascomata sometimes covered with hairs (filaments); included in subclass Hypocreomycetidae; example genera include Nitschkia, Scortechinia, Bertia, and Chaetosphaerella.

 Order Hypocreales
Parasitic or pathogenic on plants, may cause canker formation; when present, perithecia and stromata are brightly coloured, soft, fleshy, or waxy; asci borne in a basal layer among apical paraphyses; included in subclass Hypocreomycetidae; example genera include Hypocrea, Nectria, Cordyceps, Claviceps, and Niesslia.

 Order Melanosporales
Mycoparasitic or saprotrophic; asci evanescent and unitunicate; perithecial or cleistothecial ascomata; included in subclass Hypocreomycetidae; example genus is Melanospora.

 Order Microascales
Parasitic on plants; asci evanescent (quickly deteriorating), borne at different levels in perithecia with ostioles, or sometimes with a long necklike structure terminating in a pore; included in subclass Hypocreomycetidae; example genera include Microascus, Petriella, Halosphaeria, Lignincola, and Nimbospora.

 Order Boliniales
Saprotrophic; ascocarp may be black and shiny; some with irregular stromata; included in subclass Sordariomycetidae; examples of genera include Camarops and Apiocamarops.

 Order Calosphaeriales
Saprotrophic; ascospores small; included in subclass Sordariomycetidae; examples of genera include Calosphaeria, Togniniella, and Pleurostoma.

 Order Chaetosphaeriales
Saprotrophic; ascomata subglobose to globose; paraphyses sparse to abundant; asci unitunicate, may lack apical ring; included in subclass Sordariomycetidae; examples of genera include Chaetosphaeria, Melanochaeta, Zignoëlla, and Striatosphaeria.

 Order Coniochaetales
Saprotrophic; ascomata subglobose to globose; filiform paraphyses; asci unitunicate; included in subclass Sordariomycetidae; examples of genera include Coniochaeta and Coniochaetidium.

 Order Diaporthales
Pathogenic on plants, causing chestnut blight, root rot, and black spot; paraphyses absent; asci free within ascomata; included in subclass Sordariomycetidae; examples of genera include Diaporthe, Gnomonia, Cryphonectria, and Valsa.

 Order Ophiostomatales
Pathogenic on plants, causing diseases such as Dutch elm disease and oak wilt; long, tubular ascomata with ostiole at the tip, through which spores are released; included in subclass Sordariomycetidae; examples of genera include Ophiostoma and Fragosphaeria.

 Order Sordariales
Mainly saprotrophic in soil and dung; ascomata solitary and perithecial; includes species commonly used in genetics research; included in subclass Sordariomycetidae; examples of genera include Sordaria, Podospora, Neurospora, Lasiosphaeria, and Chaetomium.

 Order Xylariales
Saprotrophic; inoperculate asci; some with white conidia; included in subclass Xylariomycetidae; examples of genera include Xylaria, Hypoxylon, Anthostomella, Diatrype, and Graphostroma.

 Order Lulworthiales (incertae sedis; not placed in any subclass)
Saprotrophic; ascomata subglobose to pear-shaped, paraphyses absent; asci unitunicate, thin-walled; example genera include Lulworthia and Lindra.

 Order Meliolales (incertae sedis; not placed in any subclass)
Lives on other organisms (biotrophic) in tropical regions; mycelium dark, superficial, typically bearing appendages (hyphopodia or setae); asci in basal layers in ostiolate perithecia without appendages; example genus includes Meliola.

 Order Phyllachorales (incertae sedis; not placed in any subclass)
Parasitic on plants and saprotrophic on salt marsh plants; some produce perithecia shielded inside a stroma, others do not produce a stroma; example genus is Phyllachora.

 Order Trichosphaeriales (incertae sedis; not placed in any subclass)
Pathogenic on plants, saprotrophic on wood; ascomata globose, dark, and superficial; cylindrical, stalked asci; some produce muriform (brick-shaped) spores; example genus is Trichosphaeria.

Pezizomycotina (incertae sedis; not placed in any class)

 Order Lahmiales
Pathogenic on trees, mainly aspens; example genus is Lahmia.

 Order Medeolariales
Saprotrophic; example genus is Medeolaria.

 Order Triblidiales
Saprotrophic; ascomata solitary or clustered; example genera include Huangshania, Pseudographis, and Triblidium.

o Phylum Basidiomycota
Parasitic or saprotrophic on plants or insects; filamentous; hyphae septate, with septa typically inflated (dolipore) and centrally perforated; mycelium of two types: primary consisting of uninucleate cells, succeeded by secondary consisting of dikaryotic cells, often bearing bridgelike clamp connections over the septa; asexual reproduction by fragmentation, oidia (thin-walled, free, hyphal cells behaving as spores), or conidia; sexual reproduction by fusion of hyphae (somatogamy), fusion of an oidium with a hypha (oidization), or fusion of a spermatium (a nonmotile male structure that empties its contents into a receptive female structure during plasmogamy) with a specialized receptive hypha (spermatization), resulting in dikaryotic hyphae that eventually give rise to basidia, either singly on the hyphae or in variously shaped basidiocarps (also called basidiomata); meiospores (basidiospores) borne on basidia; in the rusts and smuts, the dikaryotic hyphae produce teleutospores (thick-walled resting spores), which are a part of the basidial apparatus; this is a large phylum of fungi containing the rusts, smuts, jelly fungi, club fungi, coral and shelf fungi, mushrooms, puffballs, stinkhorns, and bird’s-nest fungi; sometimes included in the subkingdom Dikarya with its sister group, Ascomycota.

 Subphylum Pucciniomycotina
Pathogens of land plants; includes the rusts; contains eight classes.

 Class Pucciniomycotina
Parasitic on plants, some saprotrophic; contains 5 orders.

 Order Septobasidiales
Parasitic on plants, some members parasitic on or symbiotic with scale insects (order Homoptera); basidiospores germinate on insects, with haustoria coiled inside insect; example genera include Septobasidium and Auriculoscypha.

 Order Pachnocybales
Parasitic on plants; uninucleate basidiospores; singular conidia; hyphal cell wall ruptures during branching; example genus includes Pachnocybe.

 Order Helicobasidiales
Mycoparasitic; violet-coloured mycelia release powdery conidia when emerging; example genera include Helicobasidium and Tuberculina.

 Order Platygloeales
Parasitic on mosses and other plants; pycnium (fruiting body of rusts) forms masses of hyphae inside mosses; example genera include Platygloea and Eocronartium.

 Order Pucciniales
Parasitic on plants; typically have 5 spore stages and 2 alternate hosts; example genera include Puccinia and Uromyces.

 Class Cystobasidiomycetes
Parasitic on plants; simple-septate basidiomycetes; contains 3 orders.

 Order Cystobasidiales
Parasitic on plants; yeasts are non-teliospore-forming and produce auricularioid basidia and ballistospores (spores that are forcibly discharged); example genera include Cystobasidium, Occultifur, and Rhodotorula.

 Order Erythrobasidiales
Some are pathogenic in humans and animals, others are saprotrophic in soil or found in the air; yeastlike cells may be spherical or elongate; example genera include Erythrobasidium, Sporobolomyces, and Bannoa.

 Order Naohideales
Mycoparasitic; auricularoid basidia may contain mitospores; example genus is Naohidea.

 Class Agaricostilbomycetes
Parasitic or saprotrophic; simple-septate basidiomycetes; contains 2 orders.

 Order Agaricostilbales
Mostly saprotrophic; fruiting body is septate, with uniform hyphae; some have slender basidiospores, which may germinate by budding and may be solitary or clustered; example genera include Agaricostilbum and Chionosphaera.

 Order Spiculogloeales
Parasitic or saprotrophic; spinulose to granulose auricularoid basidia; include jelly fungi; example genera include Mycogloea and Spiculogloea.

 Class Microbotryomycetes
Pathogenic in plants, some are mycoparasitic; includes some yeasts; contains 4 orders.

 Order Heterogastridiales
Mycoparasitic; basidiocarps may be pycnidioid; example genus includes Heterogastridium.

 Order Microbotryales
Pathogenic in plants (some cause smut); violet teliospores; example genera include Microbotryum and Ustilentyloma.

 Order Leucosporidiales
Mycoparasitic; mycelia lack clamp connections; septate basidia; example genera include Leucosporidiella, Leucosporidium, and Mastigobasidium.

 Order Sporidiales
Nonpathogenic; basidia may be very long; hyphae with clamp connections; some species emit peachlike odour; example genera include Sporidiobolus and Rhodosporidium.

 Class Atractiellomycetes
Parasitic or saprotrophic; simple septate; some pycnidial members; auricularoid basidia; gastroid; contains 1 order.

 Order Atractiellales
Parasitic or saprotrophic; minute globuse conidia formed from tips of hyphae; example genera include Atractiella, Saccoblastia, Helicogloea, and Phleogena.

 Class Classiculomycetes
Parasitic; uredinalian septal pores with tremelloid haustorial cells; contains 1 order.

 Order Classiculales
Saprotrophic; many are aquatic or aeroaquatic hyphomycetes; simple septal pores; some with long fusiform basidiospores; example genera include Classicula and Jaculispora.

 Class Mixiomycetes
Parasitic or saprotrophic; simple septate; contains 1 order.

 Order Mixiales
Parasitic primarily on ferns; blastosporic yeasts; example genus is Mixia.

 Class Cryptomycocolacomycetes
Parasitic; simple septate; contains 1 order.

 Order Cryptomycocolacales
Parasitic on insects such as bark beetles, some are mycoparasitic; sometimes fuse with host cells using a small pore in colacosome; example genera include Cryptomycocolax and Colacosiphon.

 Subphylum Ustilaginomycotina
Parasitic on plants as dikaryotic hyphae; haploid yeast phase is saprotrophic; contains 2 classes.

 Class Ustilaginomycetes
Parasitic (dikaryotic phase) and saprotrophic (haploid phase); includes smut fungi; contains 3 orders.

 Order Urocystales
Parasitic on plants such as arrowhead, causing blister smut, and wheat, causing flag smut; mycelia may form dense clusters in leaves and leaf stalks (petioles); example genera include Urocystis, Ustacystis, and Doassansiopsis.

 Order Ustilaginales
Parasitic on plants, causing smut of many cereal grains, including wheat, barley, corn, and rice; masses of spores (sori) are usually black and dusty; basidial apparatus consisting of thick-walled teleutospore (probasidium), which upon germination gives rise to a septate or nonseptate tube (metabasidium) bearing basidiospores; basidiospores not forcibly discharged, germinating usually by budding or by fusing and then producing a mycelial germ tube; example genera include Ustilago and Cintractia.

 Class Exobasidiomycetes
Parasitic and pathogenic on plants; includes smut fungi; contains 7 orders.

 Order Doassansiales
Parasitic on plants; holobasidia (single-celled, may be club-shaped); teliosporic; example genera include Doassansia, Rhamphospora, and Nannfeldtiomyces.

 Order Entylomatales
Parasitic and pathogenic on plants, causing rice leaf smut and dahlia smut; ballistospore-forming; example genera include Entyloma and Tilletiopsis.

 Order Exobasidiales
Parasitic and pathogenic on vascular plants; lacking basidiocarps; basidia produced in a layer on the surface of parasitized plants; example genera include Exobasidium, Clinoconidium, and Dicellomyces.

 Order Georgefischeriales
Parasitic on plants; holobasidia; may reproduce sexually in teleomorphic phase; example genera include Georgefischeria, Phragmotaenium, Tilletiaria, and Tilletiopsis.

 Order Malasseziales
Symbiotic on skin of animals but can become pathogenic, mainly affecting dogs and cats; asexual; rapidly budding yeasts with thick cell walls, colonies range in colour from cream to yellow, brown, or orange; conidia are globose to elliptical-shaped; example genus is Malassezia.

 Order Microstromatales
Parasitic on plants, some found in the nectar of orchids; some are nonteliosporic; some are anamorphic yeasts lacking septal pores; example genera include Microstroma, Sympodiomycopsis, and Volvocisporium.

 Order Tilletiales
Parasitic on grasses (family Poaceae); ballistospore-forming; primary basidiospores may conjugate, forming dikaryon capable of infecting hosts; example genera include Tilletia, Conidiosporomyces, and Erratomyces.

 Subphylum Agaricomycotina
Parasitic or symbiotic on plants, animals, and other fungi, some are saprotrophic or mycorrhizal; basidia may be undivided or have transverse or longitudinal septa; dolipore (inflated) septa and septal pore cap (parenthesomes) present; includes mushrooms, bracket fungi, puffballs; contains 3 classes.

 Class Tremellomycetes
Parasitic or saprotrophic; if present, parenthesome separated into cup-shaped sections; gelatinous fruiting bodies may be absent; includes 3 orders.

 Order Cystofilobasidiales
Parasitic and pathogenic on plants (causing black canker of parsnips), may be saprotrophic; dolipores present; may lack parenthesomes; unicellular yeasts; example genera include Cystofilobasidium, Mrakia, and Itersonilia.

 Order Filobasidiales
Pathogenic in humans, causing cryptococcosis, parasitic on fungi, insects, and humans, saprotrophic in soil and dung; mitosporic; asexual reproduction as yeasts, which are encapsulated, with colonies ranging in colour from cream to pink, yellow, or brown; sexual reproduction as teleomorph; example genera include Filobasidiella and Cryptococcus.

 Order Tremellales
Parasitic on mosses, vascular plants, or insects, although most are saprotrophic; basidiocarps well-formed, appearing as inconspicuous horny crusts when dry but usually bright-coloured to black gelatinous masses after a rain; example genera include Tremella, Trichosporon, and Christiansenia.

 Class Dacrymycetes
Mostly saprotrophic; parenthesome imperforate (forms a dome-shaped cover over dolipore); contains 1 order.

 Order Dacrymycetales
Saprotrophic; some with “tuning fork” basidia; some with fruiting bodies ranging from cup-shaped to cone-shaped; example genera include Dacrymyces, Calocera, and Guepiniopsis.

 Class Agaricomycetes
Parasitic, pathogenic, symbiotic, or saprotrophic; most are terrestrial, with few aquatic members; all are mushroom-forming; parenthesomes imperforate or perforate (spore cap has openings); includes subclasses Agaricomycetidae and Phallomycetidae; contains 17 orders.

 Order Agaricales
Most are saprotrophic, some are parasitic on plants (causing root rot), others are mycorrhizal; basidia produced in layers (hymenia) on the underside of fleshy fruiting bodies (basidiocarps), in tubes (boletes), or on gills (mushrooms); includes inky cap mushrooms and some species of earthstars and puffballs in the family Lycoperdaceae; included in subclass Agaricomycetidae; example genera include Agaricus, Armillaria, Coprinus, and Pleurotus.

 Order Atheliales
Mycorrhizal, found primarily on conifers and hardwood trees; included in subclass Agaricomycetidae; example genera include Athelia, Piloderma, and Tylospora.

 Order Boletales
Saprotrophic, many are found living at the base of trees such as pines; spores enclosed in fruiting body, become dusty at maturity and are expelled into the air; includes some edible boletes, such as butter boletes, king boletes, and queen boletes, as well as pigskin poison puffballs; included in subclass Agaricomycetidae; example genera include Boletus, Scleroderma, Coniophora, and Rhizopogon.

 Order Geastrales
Found under trees, mainly conifers; spherical or egg-shaped fruiting bodies resemble mushrooms, some become star-shaped after splitting open to release spores; includes earthstars; included in subclass Phallomycetidae; example genera include Geastrum, Radiigera, and Sphaerobolus.

 Order Gomphales
Most are mycorrhizal, some are saprotrophic; spores may be olive-shaped, usually rough; included in subclass Phallomycetidae; example genera include Gomphus, Gautieria, and Ramaria.

 Order Hysterangiales
Most are saprotrophic; resembles puffballs when small, becoming pear-shaped and finally globose when mature; fruiting body may be pink to vibrant lilac in colour; mature internal tissue characterized by fetid odour; includes club-shaped stinkhorn; included in subclass Phallomycetidae; example genera include Hysterangium, Phallogaster, Gallacea, and Austrogautieria.

 Order Phallales
Found in temperate zones; phalluslike fruiting body with fetid odour, often slimy; includes stinkhorns; included in subclass Phallomycetidae; example genera include Phallus, Clathrus, and Claustula.

 Order Auriculariales (incertae sedis; not placed in any subclass)
Saprotrophic; basidia may be divided longitudinally; gelatinous fruiting body may appear to be upside-down and may fuse to form large masses; includes ear fungus and black jelly roll; example genera include Auricularia, Exidia, and Bourdotia.

 Order Cantharellales (incertae sedis; not placed in any subclass)
Saprotrophic; basidia have unusual shapes; hyphae may be thin-walled or thick-walled, with or without clamp connections; example genera include Cantharellus, Botryobasidium, Craterellus, and Tulasnella.

 Order Corticiales (incertae sedis; not placed in any subclass)
Parasitic, saprotrophic, or symbiotic with algae to form lichen; spores range in colour from white to pink; hyphae clamped; example genera include Corticium, Vuilleminia, and Punctularia.

 Order Gloeophyllales (incertae sedis; not placed in any subclass)
Saprotrophic; many cause wood rot; basidiospores may be cylindrical to ellipsoidal in shape; hyphae clamped; example genera include Gloeophyllum, Neolentinus, and Veluticeps.

 Order Hymenochaetales (incertae sedis; not placed in any subclass)
Mycorrhizal or saprotrophic; many cause white rot; fruiting body may be inconspicuous; many with imperforate parenthesome; example genera include Hymenochaete, Phellinus, and Trichaptum.

 Order Polyporales (incertae sedis; not placed in any subclass)
Mycorrhizal or saprotrophic, often found on decaying wood; basidia borne in various ways but rarely on gills; fruiting body may be mushroomlike; example genera include Polyporus, Fomitopsis, and Phanerochaete.

 Order Russulales (incertae sedis; not placed in any subclass)
Parasitic or saprotrophic, often found at the base of trees; fruiting body may be slimy; many have gills; some are very large, reaching a diameter of 1 metre (3.3 feet); includes some edible fungi, such as some species of tooth fungi; example genera include Russula, Aleurodiscus, Bondarzewia, Hericium, Peniophora, and Stereum.

 Order Sebacinales (incertae sedis; not placed in any subclass)
Symbiotic with plants, some form mycorrhizal associations; forms hyphal networks on and within roots; chlamydospores generated inside root cells or at root surface; example genera include Sebacina, Tremellodendron, and Piriformospora.

 Order Thelephorales (incertae sedis; not placed in any subclass)
Found in the ground in wooded areas; fruiting bodies black to brown; hyphae usually have clamp connections; example genera include Thelephora, Bankera, and Polyozellus.

 Order Trechisporales (incertae sedis; not placed in any subclass)
Found on wood or in soil; clavate (club-shaped) or stipitate (stalk-shaped) basidiomata; hyphae with clamp connections; example genera include Trechispora, Sistotremastrum, and Porpomyces.

 Basidiomycota (incertae sedis)
Includes basidiomycota not placed in a subphylum; contains 2 classes.

 Class Wallemiomycetes
Includes molds that are pathogenic in humans; osmophilic (capable of living on surfaces with highly concentrated solutes, such as salt or sugar); contains 1 order.

 Order Wallemiales
Pathogenic in humans, contains known allergens; found in soil, hay, and textiles; spores are typically brown in colour and formed in chains; example genus is Wallemia.

 Class Entorrhizomycetes
Pathogenic or saprotrophic on roots of plants; contains 1 order.

 Order Entorrhizales
Pathogenic or saprotrophic; hyphae clamped; dolipore and parenthesome present; contains the only smut fungus that causes gall formation on roots; example genus is Entorrhiza.

Common microorganisms; includes important plant pathogens, such as the cause of potato blight (Phytophthora); motile spores swim by means of 2 flagella and grow as hyphae with cellulose-containing walls; includes the majority of the Oomycota; contains a total of approximately 110 genera and 900 species.

o Phylum Hyphochytriomycota
Microscopic organisms that are parasitic or saprotrophic on algae and fungi in fresh water and in soil; forms a small thallus, often with branched rhizoids; whole of the thallus is eventually converted into a reproductive structure; contains 23 species in 6 genera.

 Order Hyphochytriales
Mostly marine; motile cells bear a single tinsel flagellum (a flagellum with short side branches along the central axis, comblike); example genera include Hyphochytrium and Rhizidiomyces.

o Phylum Labyrinthulomycota
Found in both salt water and fresh water in association with algae and other chromists; feeding stage comprises an ectoplasmic network and spindle-shaped or spherical cells that move within the network by gliding over one another; contains about 45 species in 10 genera.

 Order Labyrinthulales
Parasitic on marine algae, symbiotic with algae or vascular plants, parasitic on plants, or saprotrophic in soil; motile cells glide on an extracellular matrix secreted by an organelle known as a sagenogenetosome; example genus is Labyrinthula.

 Order Thraustochytriales
Found in fresh water and salt water, as well as in saline soil; secrete ectoplasmic nets from a sagenogenetosome; monocentric thallus; example genus is Thraustochytrium.

o Phylum Oomycota
Found in fresh water, wet soil, and marine habitats, some are pathogenic (such as Saprolegnia and Phytophthora); contains about 600 species in 90 genera.

 Order Leptomitales
Aquatic, saprotrophic, often found in polluted water; eucarpic; hyphae constricted, with cellulin plugs, arising from a well-defined basal cell; oogonium typically containing a single egg, which may be free or embedded in periplasm (a peripheral layer of protoplasm); example genera include Apodachlyella, Ducellieria, Leptolegniella, and Leptomitus.

 Order Myzocytiopsidales
Pathogenic in insects of the order Diptera; spores develop within a sporangium; example genus is Crypticola.

 Order Olpidiopsidales
Pathogenic on marine plants, including laver (nori); thallus infects cells of host; example genus is Olpidiopsis.

 Order Peronosporales
Aquatic or terrestrial; parasitic on algae or vascular plants, the latter mostly obligate parasites causing downy mildews; in advanced species, zoosporangia borne on well-differentiated sporangiophores, deciduous and behaving as conidia (asexually produced spores); example genera include Albugo, Peronospora, Bremia, and Plasmopara.

 Order Pythiales
Pathogenic in plants, algae, and fungi, some are saprotrophic in soil or water; hyphae may grow within or between cells of plants, causing root rot; example genera include Pythium, Phytophthora, and Pythiogeton.

 Order Rhipidiales
Aquatic, saprotrophic, often found in polluted waters; thallus contains cellulin plugs, usually branched and inflated; example genus is Rhipidium.

 Order Salilagenidiales
Marine, parasitic on prawns and lobsters; mycelia penetrate exoskeleton; example genus is Haliphthoros.

 Order Saprolegniales (water molds)
Parasitic or saprotrophic; some cause root rot, others infect fish and fish eggs; mostly eucarpic, filamentous water molds or soil fungi; hyphae without constrictions or cellulin plugs; oogonia containing 1 to many eggs; some species are diplanetic, producing 2 types of zoospores (primary pear-shaped spores with anterior flagella and secondary kidney-shaped spores with lateral flagella); example genera include Leptolegnia, Achlya, and Saprolegnia.

 Order Sclerosporales
Parasitic on plants, causing root rot; can survive in soil for long periods of time; thick-walled oogonia; may lack haustoria; example genera include Sclerospora and Verrucalvus.

 Order Anisolpidiales
Found in marine environments, parasitic; example genus is Anisolpidium.

 Order Lagenismatales
Found in marine environments, parasitic; filamentous; example genus is Lagenisma.

 Order Rozellopsidales
Found in marine environments, parasitic on euglena, some are biotrophic with other Oomycota or algae; may have naked thalli; example genera include Pseudosphaerita and Rozellopsis.

 Order Haptoglossales
Parasitic on algae or plant roots, including roots of sugar beets; may be non-mycelial-forming; sporangia develop inside host cells; example genera include Haptoglossa, Lagena, and Pontisma.

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26 de septiembre de 2022


The Lichens
Page 370 to 372 of Chapter 18, Botany for Degree Students - Year I, BP Pandey

A lichen is a plant consisting of two separate plants – a fungus and an alga, so closely associated with each other as to appear a single plant. The algal cells of the association are always enveloped by the fungus. The combined growth of both parterns results in a constant definite form and internal structure of the lichen. This group has about 400 genera and 15 000 species and is treated separately instead of its connection with fungi or algae. The science of lichens is termed lichenology and one who studies this science is known as lichenologist.

The fungal component in four genera of lichens is a member of Basidiomycetes and in rest it is an Ascomycetous member as such the lichens are called Basidiolichens and Ascolichens. Basidiolichens have only four genera, all are restricted to tropical regions, while the Ascolichens are restricted to temperate regions. The algal components may belong to Myxophyceae (blue green algae) or Chlorophyceae (green algae). They may be filamentous or non-filamentous. Basidiolichens always possess a member of Myxophyceae. Some lichens have been observed, where fungi are associated with autotrophic bacteria. Each lichen is always formed of the same fungal and algal components and has constant internal structure and habit.

Three types of lichens: crustose, foliose, fruticose
1. Crustose
These lichens have flattened thalli, closely adherent to substratum. Thallus of majority of such lichens has more or less leathery texture and it internally differentiated with the algal component always restricted to a definite portion of the thallus. Some lichens have gelatinous thallus, in which alga and fungus are uniformly distributed throughout a gelatinous matrix. Lichens vary in form, colours and thickness. Thallus of these lichens may vary remain partly of fully submerged in the substratum on which they grow. In the case where body is fully embedded, only the fruiting body (ascocarps) of the fungus appear on the surface of the substrate.

2. Foliose
These lichens possess leave-like thalli with lobed or irregularly folded margins. Some parts of the thallus are more or less firmly attached to the substratum by means of hyphal outgrowths, rhizines from the lower surface. Rhizines may consist of separate single branched or unbranched hyphae, or of several parallel hyphae closely adhered to each other to form strands. A foliose lichen like Gyrophora may be attached to the substratum by a single rhizine growing from the centre of the thallus or a lichen may be attached by several rhizine.

3. Fruticose
These lichens have much branched, cylindrical, ribbon-like, flattened or sometimes filamentous thalli. They are much branched, and appear shrubby, and so the name fruticose (frutex = shrub) is given to them. They may be erect (Cladonia) or pendant (Usnea). Their thalli are attached to the substratum by the basal portion only which is composed of strands of densely packed hyphae.

The lichens are variously coloured commonly bluish-green or greyish-green. Many lichens are yellow, orange, reddish, brownish or black due to the presence of additional pigments.

Supplementary: Australian Lichen© 2012 Australian National Botanic Gardens and Australian National Herbarium, Canberra.

  • Fruticose lichens are erect or pendulous and markedly three-dimensional.
  • Crustose lichens are markedly two dimensional and firmly attached to the substrate. A crustose lichen looks very much like a thin crust on the substrate.
  • Foliose lichens could be thought of as halfway between crustose and fruticose. Though obviously three dimensional they grow in a more-or-less sheet-like form, but often with a lobed appearance. They are not attached by their entire lower surfaces to their substrates. Indeed, some foliose lichens are just centrally attached click to view to their substrates with the rest loose, so making it possible to see both the lower and upper surfaces very easily.
Ingresado el 26 de septiembre de 2022 por lunababy22 lunababy22 | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

27 de junio de 2022

Cell biology terminology: Diploid vs Haploid (for animals)

A cell that all chromosomes it contains are homologous chromosomes.

Cells in the germ line, which go on to produce gametes, or egg and sperm cells are haploid, which means they contain a single set of chromosomes.

The total number of chromosomes in diploid cells is described as 2n, which is twice the number of chromosomes in a haploid cell.

Genetic variation is important
Haploid cells with chromosomes genetically different from each other can amplify the gene pool, and facilitate natural selections to biological fitness and survival of that species.

Number of possible unique haploid cells in human
2 Exp(22) = 4,194,304 ~ 4M
2 Exp(23) = 8,388,608 ~ 8M

  • ~ 4M unique haploid cells with X-sex-chromosome & 4M unique haploid cells with Y-sex-chromosome for male; whereas
  • ~ 4M unique haploid cells for each female-sex-chromosome (4M + 4M) for female

The actual number of possible unique haploid cells maybe subject to certain constraints, such as evolution, social norms - preference or priority is always given to chromosomes inherited from father or mother, etc.

Ingresado el 27 de junio de 2022 por lunababy22 lunababy22 | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

26 de junio de 2022

Nerium oleander

Stem to 6 m tall. Leaves very narrowly elliptic, 5-21 X 1-3.5 cm, leathery, base cuneate or decurrent on petiole, apex acuminate or acute. Leaves are opposite or in whorled.
Flowers showy, fragrant. Sepals narrowly triangular to narrowly ovate, 3-10 mm. Corolla purplish red, pink, white, salmon, or yellow, tube 1.2-2.2 cm; lobes 1.3-3 cm, single or double. Follicles cylindric, 12-23 cm. Seeds oblong, coma 0.9-1.2 cm. Fl. spring-autumn. 2n = 22.

Sun to partial shade, withstands dry conditions. Well adapted to coastal areas. It is commonly used in highway median strip plantings in California and Texas. The species is currently wide spread and it is difficult to determine a precise region of origin. It is considered native through the Mediterranean region, to the Arabian Peninsula, the Middle East, to India and central China.

Oleander has historically been considered a poisonous plant (in particular, to herbivorous animals). ALL PARTS OF THIS PLANT ARE HIGHLY TOXIC AND MAY BE FATAL. It contains cardiac glycosides, which are known to be toxic when ingested. These and other poisons are found in all parts of the plant, whether dried or green. Ingestion of oleander plant parts can lead to serious illness and possibly death.

Poisoning Events
Cases of oleander poisonings due to accidental exposure, intentional ingestion and medicinal use have been reported worldwide. In Japan, a 49-year-old female drank water extract of oleander for suicide. Toxic symptoms appeared 30 minutes after ingestion. She died 1 day after admission (to the hospital). In the United States, a 42-year-old female burnt oleander for the disposal of prunings and inhaled the smoke periodically for 2 hours. She had toxic symptoms for 2 days, and recovered uneventfully after hospital treatment.


  1. College of Agricultural Sciences - Department of Horticulture, Oregon State University
  2. Chinese Plant Name of Nerium oleander
  3. The North Carolina Extension Gardener Plant Toolbox - NC State University
  4. Toxicology of Nerium oleander, Hospital Authority
Ingresado el 26 de junio de 2022 por lunababy22 lunababy22 | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

11 de junio de 2022

Soil vs Land

I summarize the views from Ruel Lino Cruz [see Note], Sumana Ray and Naresh Chaudhari, on the basic difference between: soil and land.

  • Land is the solid part of Earth above tide level - including volcanoes & artificial ponds, where the liquid part (below sea level) we called it Oceans, Seas, Lakes, etc.
  • Soil is the "material" on Land. In agriculture, it is measured by the surface area it covers and its depth.
  • The characteristics of Soil change in respect of external forces (such as weather conditions) across the time. How long it would last depends on its vitability.

Note: https://www.quora.com/profile/Ruel-Lino-Cruz

Ingresado el 11 de junio de 2022 por lunababy22 lunababy22 | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

15 de enero de 2022

5 more Plants Observations (as at 1 January 2022, since August 2020)

  1. Mexican pentunia or Mexican ruellia [Ruellia simplex] < Ruellias [Ruellias < Ruellieae < Acanthoideae < Acanthaceae] < Mints, Plantains, Olives, and Allies [Lamiales] Lamiids < Asterids < Eudicots] < Dicots [Magnoliopsida] < Flowering Plants [Angiospermae] < Vascular Plants [Tracheophyta] < Plants [Plantae]

  2. Brazilian Bachelor’s Button [Centratherum punctatum] < Centratherum [Centratherum < Lychnophorinae < Vernonieae] < Chicories, Dandelions, and Allies [Cichorioideae]
  3. Bidens alba ssp. radiata < Romerillo [Bidens alba < Bidens pilosa var. radiata] < Black-jack [Bidens pilosa] < Bur Marigolds [Bidens] < Coreopsis and Allies [Coreosideae < Heliantheae < Helianthodae < Asteroideae (菊亞科)]
  4. Tridax Daisy [Tridax procumbens] < Tridax [Tridax < Millerieae] < Sunflowers and Allies [Heliantheae < Helianthodae < Asteroideae (菊亞科)]

    < Sunflowers, Daisies, Asters [Asteraceae] < Asters, Bellflowers, Fanflowers and Allies [Asterales < Asterids < Eudicots] < Dicots [Magnoliopsida] < Flowering Plants [Angiospermae] < Vascular Plants [Tracheophyta] < Plants [Plantae]

  5. Japanese maple [Acer palmatum] < Maples [Maples < Acer < Sapindaceae] < Soapberry [Sapindaceae < Sapindales] < Soapberries, Cashews, Mahoganies, and Allies [Sapindales < Malvids < Rosids < Eudicots] < Dicots [Magnoliopsida] < Flowering Plants [Angiospermae] < Vascular Plants [Tracheophyta] < Plants [Plantae]
Ingresado el 15 de enero de 2022 por lunababy22 lunababy22 | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario

14 de octubre de 2021

Esterification - Formation of aroma/ester

Esterification - Formation of aroma/ester

An ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH hydroxyl group is replaced by an –O– alkyl (alkoxy) group, as in the substitution reaction of a carboxylic acid and an alcohol.

RCO2H + R′OH ⇌ RCO2R′ + H2O

Types of esters

There are two groups of esters, aliphatic and phenolic. Aliphatic esters are those formed with straight chain/non-cyclic molecules (such as alcohols and fatty acids). Phenolic esters are formed from phenolic compounds, which are cyclic in nature.

Ethanoic acid (Common Name: Acetic acid) CH3COOH
Ethanol C2 H5OH


In the presence of a dehydrating agent, e.g. H2SO4, the reaction goes to the right-hand side of the equation:

CH3COOH + C2 H5OH ---> CH3COOC2 H5 + H2O

It is said that aliphatic monocarboxylic esters are the most significant esters for white wines. The second group are those formed from acetic acid and higher alcohols.

Example: Grape phenolic compounds

Further reading:

1. Blogs wirtten by some wine advocate(s): https://enoviti-hanumangirl.blogspot.com/2013_02_01_archive.html

Ingresado el 14 de octubre de 2021 por lunababy22 lunababy22 | 0 comentarios | Deja un comentario